Skip to main content

Full text of "The southern planter : devoted to agriculture, horticulture, and the household arts"

See other formats


THE 



SOUTHERN PLANTER; 

Devoted to Agriculture Horticulture, and the Household Arts. 



EDITED BY C. T. BOTTS. 




TERMS:— ONE DOLLAR AND FIFTY CENTS PER ANNUM, 

To be discharged by One Dollar, if paid within 60 days. Six Copies for Five Dol- 
lars. A subscription must commence with either the January or July Number. 

fc>OFFICE ON MAIN STREET, OPPOSITE THE BANKS.«£Q 
POSTAGE.— 100 miles or under, 1£ cents—Over 100 miles, 2.J cents. 



RICHMOND: 

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETOR BY P. D. BERNARD 

1845. 



LlAt 



LAND FOR SALE. 

THE Subscriber is authorized to sell one of the 
best tracts of Land in North Carolina. It con- ■ 
tains 1500 acres, lying on Tar river and immediately 
upon the Raleigh and Gaston Rail Road. The situa- ( 
tion is perfectly healthy and the property every way | 
desirable. The dwelling house is an excellent one ; ( 
besides which, there are on the premises an excel- ] 
lent grist mill, and every kind of out house. The 
greater part of it is first rate tobacco land, and a j 
great bargain can be had in it. This estate lies in i 
Granville County, and is the property of Mr. Josiah , 
Crudup. 

Eleven hundred acres of land on the Appomattox, 
eighteen miles above Petersburg; 500 acres in wood - 
of virgin growth, 300 low grounds, principally a 
stiff red soil, admirably adapted to wheat, clover 
and tobacco. Buildings consist of two dwelling 
houses, barns, stables, quarters, &c; eight never- fail- 
ing springs, affording a good site for a mill, with 16 
feet fall— fencing excellent. 

This tract is the property of Mr. S. W. Cousins, 
and can be purchased at any time shortly for $3500, 
a great bargain. 

One thousand acres of land on James River, about 
6 miles from Williamsburg— 360 acres are cleared 
and marled — the balance is in wood, and very conve- 
nient to the river. The buildings are chiefly new 
and commodious. 

A beautiful suburban residence near the City of 
Richmond, consisting of a large three story brick 
house, with 10 fine rooms, a handsome greenhouse, 
brick kitchen, stables, carriage house, &c. with an 
acre of highly improved ground. This property lies 
just without the corporation line, and enjoys all the 
advantages of the City without being subjected to any 
of its burdens. A great bargain can be had in it. 

Sixty acres of highly improved Land upon the 
Brook Turnpike, within 2 miles of the City. Build- 
ings new and good. A capital establishment for a 
dairy farm. 

A very valuable farm, beautifully situated on the 
Rapid Ann River, in the County of Culpeper. It con- 
tains 643 acres, about 300 cleared and highly improv- 
ed. The buildings are good, and the soil proverbially 
excellent. This is one of the most delightful and 
healthy regions in Virginia. The society in this 
neighborhood is unsurpassed by any in the Union. 
Price $20 per acre. 

A great bargain can be bought in 900 acres of land 
in Powhatan, upon the Appomattox river, 33 miles 
from Richmond. This property is situated in one of 
the finest neighborhoods in Virginia, is perfectly 
healthy, and finely watered. There are 400 acres in 
woods and 50 acres of low grounds, a good dwelling 
with a new granary, and all necessary outhouses. — 
Fifty miles of river navigation carries you to Peters- 
burg, or ten miles of land carriage bring you to the 
James River Canal. The proprietor of this estate, 
who is now living in the City of Richmond, offers to 
sell it at a most reduced rate. 

A Market Garden of ten acres, within a mile 
of the City of Richmond. This place is ornament- 
ed with a beautiful cottage, and is in the very 
highest state of cultivation ; well stocked with grape 
vines and fruit trees, and possessed of every conve- 
nience that could make such a place profitable or 
comfortable. From the sale of vegetables in the 
Richmond market, the proprietor has derived an in- 
come of $1,500 per annum. 

C. T. BOTTS. 

BROWN, TAYLOR U TUCKER, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

RICHMOND, VA. 

LUDWELL H. BROWN, EDWIN M. TAYLOR, B. TUCKER. 

Office on the east side of the Basin. 



EXTENSIVE SALE OF 
IMPROVED SHORT-HORNED CATTLE* 

HAVING become over-stocked, I find myself un- 
der the necessity, lor the first time, of publicly 
ottering my cattle for sale; and that the opportunity 
to purchase fine animals may be made the more invi- 
ting, I propose to put in my Entire Herd — such a 
herd of Improved Short Horns as has never before, 
perhaps, been offered by any individual in this coun- 
try. The sale will embrace about fifty animals, Bulls, 
Cows and Heifers; all either imported, or the imme- 
diate descendants of those which were so, and of per- 
fect pedigree. Those imported, were from several of 
the best stocks in England, selected either by myself 
or my friends. 

It is sometimes the practice at sales of this kind, 
where the interest involved is considerable, for the 
proprietor to protect himself by by-bidders or some 
other kind of management, or for the owner to stop 
the sale if offers do not come up to his expectations 
or the requirements of his interest. Such practices 
have a tendency to lessen the interest in public sales 
of this character, especially with those who cannot 
attend without considerable personal inconvenience. 
But in this case, assurances are given that no disap- 
pointment shall arise to the company from either of 
the causes mentioned, and a good degree of confi- 
dence is felt that there will be no dissatisfaction from 
the character of the cattle themselves. They shall 
all be submitted to the company, and sold at such 
prices as they choose to give, without any covert ma- 
chinery, effort, er understanding with any persons ; 
reserving to myself only the privilege of bidding 
openly on three or four animals, which shall first be 
designated. This reservation is made that I may not 
get entirely out of the stock of some particular f ami- 
lies which I highly esteem, and ihat could not proba- 
bly be replaced. 

A full catalogue will be prepared and inserted in 
the May No. of the Cultivator. 

The sale will take place at Mount Hope, one mile 
south of the City of Albany, on Wednesday, the 25th 
day of June next, at 10 o'clock, A. M. 

E. P. PRENTICE. 
Mount Hope, near Albany, March 15, 1845. 



f^Gentlemen from a distance, who wish to obtain 
stock at the above-mentioned sale, and may find it 
inconvenient to attend in person, are informed that 
the subscriber will make purchases for those by 
whom he may be authorized. They can state the 
sum at which bids should be limited, and if conve- 
nient, designate the animals they would prefer; or 
give such general instructions as they may deem pro- 
per, under the assurance that it will be strictly ad- 
hered to. SANFORD HOWARD. 

Cultivator Office, Albany, March 15, 1845. 

LAND IN NELSON. 

THE subscriber is authorised to sell a very valua- 
ble tract of land in Nelson County, belonging 
to Dr. Chas. Cocke. It contains 1914 acres, is situ- 
ated five miles below the Court House, and eight 
miles above New Market, on the James River Canal. 
This is a splendid tobacco estate, well wooded, well 
watered, and well enclosed. The situation is as 
healthy as any in the world. It is susceptible of di- 
vision into three or four farms, and would form a 
capital subject of in vestment for a lot of northern emi- 
grants. The whole farm can be purchased for $20,000. 

Apply to Dr. Cocke, Garland's Store, Albemarle, 
or to the subscriber. C. T. BOTTS. 



FOR SALE, 

A FARM of 847 Acres in the county of Prince 
Edward, very highly improved, in one of the 
most desirable neighborhoods in Virginia. It is situ- 
ated six miles from Prince Edward Court Housj , en 1 
eleven from Farmville. This is the property of Mr. 
Edward A. Carter, and it is offered upon the most 
liberal terms. For further particulars apply to 

C. T. BOTTS. 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER, 

IDebotcXJ to glgrfculturi, 2§ovtf culture, att$ tlie Jgttusdioltv girts. 



Agriculture is the nursing mother of the Arts. 

Xenopkon. 



Vol. V. 



THE TUCKAHOE PLANT. 
The writer of the following article is remark- 
able for his antiquarian lore, and his singular 
devotion to every thing connected with the pri- 
mitive history of Virginia. We have been pre- 
sented by Mr. Campbell with a specimen of 
what he conceives to be not the Tuckahoe root, 
which we keep for the inspection of the curious. 

For the Southern Planter. 

Captain Smith, in his History of Virginia, 
Book 2d, p. 122, says: " The chiefe root they 
have for food is called Tockawhoughe. It 
groweth like a flagge in marishes. In one day 
a salvage will gather sufficient for a weeke. — 
These rootes are much of the gfeatnesse and 
taste of potatoes. They use to cover a great 
many of them with oke leaves and feme and 
then cover all with earth in the manner of a 
colepir ; over it on each side they continue a 
great fire twenty-four houres before they dare 
eat it. Raw it is no better than poyson and being 
rosterJ, except it be tender and the heat abated, 
or sliced and dryed in the sunne, mixed with 
sorrell and meale or such like, it will prickle 
and torment the throat extreamely, and yet in 

i sommer they use this ordinarily for bread." . . . 
Again, in Book 4, p. 228, Smith says of the 
Jamestown colonists, "others would gather as 
much Tockawhoughe roots in a day as would 
make them bread for a week," &c* 

I have in my possession a tuberous root of 

I the species commonly called Tuckahoe, and upon 
making inquiry respecting it of several country 
people, I. am convinced that it is not the root 
above described by Captain Smith. Smith has 
it, " It groweth like a flagge in marishes ;" 
whereas the root which I have is spoken of by 
those who are acquainted with it as growing 
without any stalk, vine, or leaf, whatever — 
therefore, not " like a flagge," and instead of 

\ being indigenous to marshes, is commonly said 

* Beverley in his History of Virginia, Book 3d, p. 
15, gives a similar account: "Out of the ground, they 
(the Indians) dig trubbs, earth-nuts, wild onions, and 
a tuberous root they call Tuckahoe, which while crude 
is of a very hot and virulent quality; but they can 
manage it so as in case of necessity to make bread 
of it, just as the East Indians are said to do of Colo- 
cassia. It grows like a flagg in the miry marshes, 
having roots of the magnitude and taste of Irish po- 
tatoes, which are easy to be dug up." 
Vol. V.— 13 



Tillage and Pasturage are the two breasts of the 
State. — Sully. 



No. 5. 



by farmers to be found in "new grounds" and 
on high lands. The following notice of the 
Tuckahoe root is found in a note appended to 
an article in the Farmers' Register for April, 
1839, written by the late James M. Garnett, 
Esq. 

11 Would you believe it ? There are hundreds 
of native-born Virginians so ignorant of the 
early history of their own State as not to know 
that a root called ' Tuckahoe' was a common 
article of food among the Indians when Virginia 
was first settled by the English. It is indeed a 
great botanical curiosity, (now very scarce,) for 
it has neither root in the ground, nor stem above, 
but it grows a few inches below the surface, ap- 
parently as unconnected with the soil as a bu- 
ried cannon-ball would be. It is oval in shape, 
and varies in size from that of a goose- egg to 
that of a man's head. The coat is rough and 
of a dark brown color— the inner substance is 
very white, similar in texture to that of the 
yam, and of an insipid taste. I believe it is 
found in the Carolinas as well as in Virginia." 
There is, however, a diversity of opinion about 
it. Perhaps some of your readers can throw 
some light on the question, and give an account 
of the real Tuckahoe, which " groweth like a 
flagge in marishes." 

In the Fanners' Register, vol. 9, p. 3, C. B. 
Hayden, Esq., of Smithfield, Virginia, gives an 
account of the " Tockawhoughe," erroneously, 
as he thinks, called " Tuckahoe," a corruption 
of the Indian word " Tuckahowe," which liter- 
ally signifies "the place where deer are shy." 
He classes it under genus tuber, of which there 
are two species, cibarium and albidum. Mr. H. 
thinks the " Tockawhoughe," the albidum. It 
is subterranean, destitute of roots, stem and 
leaves. This is the truffle. 

Mr. Jefferson in his Notes on Virginia, p. 35, 
classes ,the Tuckahoe as the " Lycoperdon tu- 
ber"— the " puff ball," which is as different from 
the truffle as from the Tockawhoughe of Smith, 
or the Tuckahoe described by Mr. Garnett.— 
Mr. Jefferson's classification is undoubtedly er- 
roneous. This description corresponds with the 
specimen which I have. It differs fiom Smith's 
account of it in several particulars. The ano- 
malous tuber described by Mr. G. may have 
been used by the Indians as an article of food. 
It is certainly farinaceous— is readily eaten by 
I hogs, it is said, and is sometimes styled "Indian 



C* T. BOTTS, Editor. 
RICHMOND, MAY, 1845. 



98 



bread." It is, however, certainly not Smith's 
" Tockawhoughe." And if it was as rare at 
the time of the settlement of Virginia as now, 
it could hardly have afforded " a common article 
of food." Lastly, if it had " neither root in the 
ground, nor stem above," how could the abori- 
gines have discovered it? 

That it does grow without root or stem — like 
an egg deposited in the ground, is my own opi- 
nion after a good deal of inquiry on the point. 
But being no botanist I submit the question to 
those who are. 

C. Campbell. 

Richmond, March 30, 1845. 



FIRE AND WATER-PROOF CEMENT. 

To half a pint of milk put an equal quantity 
of vinegar, in order to curdle it; then separate 
the curd from the whey, and mix the whey with 
four or five eggs, beating the whole well together. 
When it is well mixed, add a little quicklime 
through a sieve, until it has acquired the con- 
sistence of a thick paste. With this, broken 
vessels may be united. It resists water, and, in 
a measure, fire. — Selected. 



For the Southern Planter. 
VIRGINIA OVERSEERS. 

Mr. Editor, — The planters of Virginia can- 
not well dispense with overseers, and as the sea- 
son for employing them is approaching, 1 beg 
leave to submit a few suggestions for the con- 
sideration of the agricultural community. I 
know not what is the custom in lower Virginia, 
but in the middle part of the State, contracts 
are generally made with overseers from the 15th 
of May to the 15th July, for services to be ren- 
dered the succeeding year; and overseers move 
on the 15th of November. 

I think that these contracts are made too 
early, and that the present practice is highly 
injurious to the interests of the planters, and ad- 
vantageous only to those overseers who possess 
no solid merit or character. Overseers can easily 
obtain recommendations and certificates, and 
upon the faith of these, they are often employed. 
They commence the performance of duty on 
the 15th November, and by June they inquire 
of their employers whether they want their ser- 
vices for another year. How can the planter 
satisfactorily decide that question thus early? 
The wheat and oats have not been cut, nor the 
corn or tobacco crop made. Every thing may 
be promising up to June, and the business of 
the farm in a forward and snug condition, about 
the time when new contracts are to be made, 
and some addition to wages are expected. A 
new contract is made, and occasionally we have 
seen a great relaxation of energy and industry 



on the part of the overseer. The wheat and 
oats are saved indifferently, and threshed worse; 
the fodder is lost, the worms destroy much fine 
tobacco, and when the crop of tobacco is housed, 
it is often cured most wretchedly. " If I could 
only have anticipated these things, (says my 
brother farmer,) I never would have contracted 
with this overseer for the next year." 

Again, if in June or July, you decline em- 
ploying the overseer for another year, your agent 
is apt to be mortified or vexed, and is not so 
likely to act conscientiously as he would be, if 
the period for making contracts did not arrive 
before August, September or October. I have 
no wish to disparage overseers, as a class. — 
There are some good and some bad men among 
them, as in all other classes or pursuits. 1 can, 
however, perceive no substantial reason for ad- 
hering to the objectionable practice of making 
contracts at so early a day. No overseer should 
be continued upon a farm if he prove incompe- 
tent, and every agent should have a fair trial. 
To allow this, more time is required than from 
the 15th of November to the 15th of June. A 
reform is demanded by the interests of the agri- 
cultural community, who can accomplish it by 
concert and co-operation, and without inflicting 
the slightest injury upon any deserving and well 
qualified overseer. If ten or fifteen influential 
planters in each county will mutually agree to 
postpone making contracts with overseers sooner 
than September or October, the present fashion 
will be speedily changed, and much good will 
result. Overseers would then become more at- 
tentive to their several duties. 

Our principal staples are now selling for 
about half as much as they commanded in 
1835-6. Some diminution in the wages of 
overseers has taken place, but I respectfully ask, 
if the wages now generally given are not higher 
by from twenty to forty per cent, than the land- 
holders can afford to give? A few years ago 
lug tobacco sold in Richmond at five and six 
dollars per 100 lbs. and now it sells at from 
$1 65 to $2 per 100 lbs. Good passed tobacco 
sells now about as well as lug tobacco did some 
few years back. At this time, twelve hogsheads 
of lug tobacco will not bring more than $200, 
after deducting the expenses of getting them to 
market. For the last three or four years the 
wheat crop has been indifferent in Virginia, and 
this staple has sold comparatively low. Our 
products and the prices at which they sell, 
should certainly be considered when we think 
of making our contracts with overseers. The 
latter have no moral right to expect high wages 
in the present condition of the commercial world. 
Let the overseers recollect that they receive 
something more than wages. They and their 
families obtain their bread and bacon, their milk 
and butter, and many other comforts from their 
employers. The overseers have no house rent 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



99 



to pay or fuel to purchase. While their services 
are arduous and responsible, they are well paid, 
and I think better paid than the present income 
of the employers will authorize. The land- 
holders will find it absolutely necessary to cur- 
tail wages, which now range from $200 to 
$450, and in a very few instances, to $500. 

A Farmer. 

For the Southern Planter. 
MARL. 

Mr. Editor, — In compliance with a wish ex- 
pressed in the August number of the Planter, I 
will send you a short article on the use of marl. 
I fear, however, that you have greatly over- 
estimated my ability to give your readers in- 
struction upon a subject so intimately connected 
with the improvement of our soil in and about 
the tide water region of Virginia, my knowledge 
of it having been derived rather from observa- 
tion, than experience. 

The marl, with the use of which both in this 
county and some adjoining ones, I am most fa- 
miliar, contains about forty-five per cent, of shell 
lime, and about thirty per cent, of green sand, 
varying some little in per centage in different 
beds on the same estate. On the Pamunkey, 
the beds are generally accessible, the depth of 
earth before coming to the shell being about 
twelve feet. Some beds of marl contain a con- 
siderably greater amount of green sand than 
others, and from such as these I should prefer to 
obtain it, feeling confident as I do that the fer- 
tilizing property of the marl is greatly enhanced 
by a large admixture of this green sand with 
the lime. There must, however, be a fair pro- 
portion of lime, for where I have seen the green 
sand used from beds that contained no lime, al- 
though the effect was almost miraculous on the 
clover crop that followed the application, yei I 
do not think that the improvement has been per- 
manent; there are, however, two estates in this 
county where I understand green sand alone has 
been extensively used. On the one, where the 
soil is of a chocolate texture, the effect has been 
very fine, whilst on the other, where the soil is 
very light and sandy, no effect is visible, save 
on a small piece of land of like texture with 
the farm first spoken of. I recently met with 
the manager of an estate in King William 
county, on the Maltaponi, who told me that he 
had been using the green sand for the two last 
years with very beneficial results, putting 120 
bushels to the acre. 

But though every one who has green sand, 
and no marl, should use it as a desirable mode 
of improving his land, yet no one wmo has marl 
should ever haul the other unless it, may be to 
increase the quantity of green sand when he 
thinks his marl contains too small a portion of it. 

Marl may be applied with equal benefit to the 



land before a wheat crop or a corn crop. If pre- 
ference can be given to either it should be to the 
latter, as in that case the exposure to the frost 
tends to hasten the decomposition of the shells, 
and the cultivation of the corn tends to mix it 
sooner with the soil ; but in either case, it is al- 
ways most desirable to apply it along with pu- 
trescent manures, as one of its chief recommen- 
dations is the property it possesses of rendering 
those manures permanent. 

One cannot, 1 think, be too liberal in his ap- 
plication of marl; I have never seen but once, 

1 think, a crop injured by too heavy an applica- 
tion ; that was in a few acres of corn planted 
on a sandy piece of land on which about two 
thousand bushels of marl per acre had been put 
by way of experiment on the wheat fallow pre- 
ceding the corn crop, (in the four field system,) 
there was too a very severe drought, which, in 
part, accounts for the firing of the corn. I think 
about eight hundred bushels a fair application, 
and should never put less unless I had to haul 
it from a great distance. A gentleman in this 
county is now largely engaged in hauling marl 
from the beds of a neighbor to his plantation, a 
distance of from two to two and a half miles, 
putting about three hundred bushels per acre. 
He has not been yet applying it long enough to 
ascertain the exact profit he will derive from it, 
but is very well satisfied that it is a profitable 
employment for his hands and teams. It is un- 
necessary for me at this late day to dilate on 
the great value of marl as an improver; no one 
at all conversant with the principles of agricul- 
ture is now skeptical on this subject ; one has 
but to go into the marl region to see the inesti- 
mable benefits that the country has derived from 
this inexhaustible source of fertilization that na- 
ture has provided for some favored parts of the 
world. As a guide for the beginner, I annex 
an estimate of the cost and quantity of a year's 
marling, premising that no farmer having marl 
on his land should be satisfied until he has es- 
tablished two permanent marl carts at least. 

2 carters at $40 per annum, $80 00 
1 loader at $40 per annum, 40 00 
Uncovering marl per annum, 75 00 
Feed for 4 mules, wear of same and carts 250 00 

$445 00 

Quantity of marl hauled at an average dis- 
tance of three-fourths of a mile will be thirteen 
loads a day for each cart containing thirteen 
bushels, making for the two carts per diem 338 
bushels; say that they can haul 250 days in 
the year, and you have 84,500 bushels of marl 
per annum, which at 800 bushels per acre will 
marl 105f acres, being at a cost of about $4 20 
per acre. 

This is, I think, a fair estimate of the cost of 
marling, and no one could see some of the es- 
tates in Virginia, improved by marl, without 



100 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



being convinced that the improvement resulting 
from the use of marl, will amply remunerate the 
farmer for his expenditure. In the forest country, 
off from the Pamunkey river, in Hanover, is 
found an abundance of marl of a different tex- 
ture and containing different shells from that on 
the river ; this, though not so rich, has been 
used by many persons with very fine results. 

If you think this article will be acceptable to 
your readers, you can place it in the Planter. 
Truly, your friend, X. 

Hanover Co., JYov. 13, 1844. 

This article is from a gentleman who has had 
as good an opportunity of observing the effects 
of marl as any in Virginia. It was mislaid, or 
it would have appeared in an earlier number of 
the Planter. 

We have great faith in the efficacy of a pro- 
per admixture of soils, and we think that much 
of the benefit that is due to this cause has been 
attributed to marling. The deposites of calca- 
reous matter are frequently imbedded in clay } 
and when the admixture is carted upon a light, 
sandy soil, the improvement is frequently due 
as much to the clay as the lime. So, again, 
when the shell is found mixed with sand, the 
application to a stiff clay is advantageous, 
plainly upon the principle of the sand, rather 
than the shell. Yet it is the fashion to attribute 
all to the lime. 

One of the best agricultural books we evei 
read, is "Morton upon Soils," where the neces- 
sity of a due proportion of sand and clay to 
constitute a fertile soil is clearly demonstrated. 

From the Maine Cultivator. 
HOW TO MAKE SOAP. 

Messrs. Editors, — If you think the following 
article worthy of an insertion in your valuable 
paper, it is at your service. I have seen a great 
many well written articles on agriculture, cook- 
ery, &c. &c, but as I do not recollect of seeing 
any thing written on " making soap," I will 
give you the following, which is the result of 
years of experience : 

First, set up your tub as usual, with sticks 
and straw, and then put your lime (slacked) on 
the straw to the depth of three or four inches — 
then take a long stick that will come a few 
inches above the top of the tub — wind a hay 
rope around the stick, nearly its whole length — 
let the stick go through the tub two or three 
inches, then you can draw your lye without 
putting your hands into it underneath. Put 
your grease into the kettle, and turn in about 
two quarts (or enough to cover the bottom of 



the kettle) of your strongest lye. Boil a few 
minutes, then turn in a little more lye, and con- 
tinue to turn in as the lye boils over, until your 
kettle is about two-thirds or ihree-quarters full, 
when you can fill up the kettle, and after skim- 
ming the contents well, dip out and empty it 
into the barrel. Put in two pounds rosin to one 
barrel soap. If your lye is of sufficient strength, 
you will be sure to have good soap. I have 
heard people complain a great deal that they 
did not have "good luck" in making soap. — 
Their ashes were not good or not made from 
good wood or something or other. But if the 
above directions are carefully followed, I can 
assure them that they will have no reason to 
complain of " poor luck," or any thing of the 
kind. 

N. B. — Clear grease does not require more 
than ten minutes boiling, but where there are 
bones, it takes longer time. Some people put 
lime in the middle of the cask or tub, but the 
main use of lime is to strain the lye, and make 
it pure — therefore, it should be put on the top of 
the straw at the bottom of the tub. 

An Old Hand. 

Grey, Feb. 28, 1845. 



For the Southern Planter. 
THESHING MACHINES. 
Mr. Charles T. Botts : 

Dear Sir, — My opinion of the wheat ma- 
chine which I purchased of you in August, 
1844, is favorably known in my own neighbor- 
hood, but in justice to yourself and the public 
generally, I feel it my duty, as it is my pleasure, 
to request its publication in the columns of your 
Planter. It has long been a desideratum with 
small farmers to have such a machine as yours, 
since crops of five hundred or one thousand 
bushels will not justify the heavy expense of 
other kinds. I prefer your machine over all 
others, with which I am acquainted, because, 

1st. It is simple in construction and not apt 
to get out of order. 

2d. It performs more work for less money 
than other machines, and is fully adequate to 
crops of 1,000 to 1,500 bushels. 

3d. It can be worked with the hands usually 
found on farms to which it is adapted, wiihout 
the expense and trouble of hiring extra labor. 

4th. It is known that the purple straw wheat 
(of which we grow the most) has more capped 
grains than any other — very few of which pass 
from your machine in this objectionable condition. 

5th. With three mules and ten hands I 
threshed, with ease, 120 bushels per day, passed 
it through the fan once and stacked the straw. 

6th. The horse-power is, without doubt, the 
most perfect I have ever seen. 

Permit me to say, sir, that the getting up this 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



101 



machine, log-ether with the very many valuable 
improvements, found monthly in the columns of 
the Planter, will swell the long list of obliga- 
tions under which your zeal, enterprise and ta- 
lents have laid the farmers of Virginia and agri- 
culture every where. 

It may not be amiss to state that as far as 
my observation has extended, the wheat crop is 
at this time more advanced and more promising 
than I have ever seen it. The seeding was 
larger, and without some disaster this county 
will produce 10,000 bushels more than any for- 
mer year. 

Three years ago, I commenced the use of 



ashes, leached and unleached, as a top dressing 
for wheat. My time of applying them is Feb- 
ruary and March. I aim to put about two hun- 
dred bushels to the acre, and select the lightest 
and most sandy parts of my fields. With the 
result so for, I have cause to be entirely pleased, 
and I would respectfully invite the attention of 
farmers to this use of their ashes, than which, 
in my judgment, no belter disposition can be 
made. 

With great regard, 

Yours, 

Alex. Bryant. 
JMantua, Prince George, Jipril 5, 1845, 



BERKSHIRE HOG. 




In our last number we furnished a cut of the 
Siamese sow ; we now present our readers with 
a very fine engraving of the old Berkshire hog, 
by the cross on which the modern Berkshire 
was produced. Although the unnatural excite- 
ment and artificial interest that pervaded the 
country a year or two since on the subject of 
hogs, has passed away, the fondness for good 
bacon still exists, and the history of the hog is 
not without its interest either to the farmer or 
the epicure. 

Low, in his " Illustrations," furnishes us with 
representations of all the different varieties of 
hogs in England, and amongst them he seems 
to give the preference to the one at the head of 
this article. With the far seeing wisdom of a 
philosopher, he appears to have dreaded the very 



error into which the public now think the au- 
thors of the modern Berkshire have fallen. For 
our own part, we adhere to the opinion, that in 
the mania for Berkshires a great many varieties 
of hogs were produced ; thousands of which 
were entirely worthless, some of which were 
very superior. If the following quotation serves 
no other end, it may at least warn breeders from 
the common error of pushing a principle to an 
extreme. Low says, 

" Those varieties of the swine of England, 
which have received the name of breeds, have 
been usually named from the counties, or places 
where they have been reared in numbers — thus 
we have the Hampshire, the Suffolk, the Berk- 
shire, and other breeds, each supposed to be dis- 
tinguished by a set of common characters. Of 



102 



THE SOU THE 



RN PLANTER. 



these breeds, one of the earliest improved was 
the Berkshire, so named from the county of that 
name; but the principal improvement of the 
breed was made in the counties farther north, 
chiefly in Leicestershire and Staffordshire. It 
still retains, however, its original designation, 
and the Berkshire has long been known as one 
of the most generally-spread of the improved 
breeds of England. 

" The true Berkshires are of the larger races 
of swine, although they fall short in size of 
some of the older breeds, as the Hampshire, the 
Rudgwick, and some others. They are usually 
of a reddish brown color, with brown or black 
spots — a character which makes it appear that 
one of the means employed to improve them, 
was a cross with the wild boar. The Berkshire 
has long been regarded as one of the superior 
breeds of England, combining size with a suffi- 
cient aptitude to fatten, and as being fitted for 
pork and bacon ; it has been regarded also as 
the hardiest of the more improved races. The 
Berkshire breed has, like every other, been 
crossed and re-crossed with the Chinese or Chi- 
nese crosses, so as to lessen the size of the ani- 
mals, and render them more suited to the demand 
which has arisen for small and delicate pork. — 
Many of the modern breed are nearly black, in- 
dicating their approach to the Siamese character, 
and sometimes they are black, broken with 
white, showing the effect of the cross with the 
white Chinese: from this intermixture, it be- 
comes in many cases difficult to recognise, in 
the present race, the characters of the true Berk- 
shire. And although no doubt can exist with 
respect to the great benefit that has arisen from 
diminishing the size and coarseness of the for- 
mer swine of England, yet assuredly there 
should be limits to this diminution in the size of 
the hog, as of every other animal cultivated for 
food ; and, in many cases, the diminution of size 
has been merely to suit the caprice of taste. — 
The larger kinds of pigs do not find a ready 
sale in the markets of great cities, and hence, 
the more essential property of an abundant pro- 
duction of butcher's meat is sacrificed ; but we 
should remember that the supply of pork is of 
immense importance to the support of the inha- 
bitants of every country, for in the state of bacon 
it is largely consumed by the mass of the people, 
and in the salted state, it is used in the supplies 
of shipping— it is not, therefore, for the general 
good, that the old breeds of England should be 
merged in the smaller races of China and other 
countries; and while we should improve by 
every means the larger breeds that are left us, 
we should take care that we do not sacrifice 
them altogether; the country might one day re- 
gret that this over -refinement has been practised, and 
future improvers exert themselves in vain to recover 
those fine old breeds which had been abandoned! 
In place of unceasing crossing with the smaller 



breeds, it would be more praiseworthy and bene- 
ficial, to apply to our larger races those princi- 
ples of breeding which, in the case of other ani- 
mals, have succeeded. By mere selection of 
the parents, we could remove all the defective 
characters of the larger breeds, and give to them 
all the degree of fineness which consists with 
their bulk of body ; for there is no animal so easily 
changed in form,, and moulded to our purposes, as 
the hog. 

" Hogs are from time to time brought by our 
innumerable shipping, from the countries of the 
Mediterranean, as Italy, Turkey, Spain, and 
mingled with the swine of the country. Of the 
Mediterranean breeds, the Maltese was at one 
time in favor ; it was of small size, black color, 
nearly destitute of bristles, and capable of fat- 
tening quickly ; but at the present time, a breed 
from the country near Naples has been intro- 
duced, and has been employed very extensively 
to cross the other breeds: this breed, like the 
Maltese, is of small size, and of a black color : 
it is nearly destitute of hair or bristles, but on 
being bred several times in this country, the 
bristles come: the flesh is exceedingly good, but 
the animals themselves are destitute of hardi- 
ness, and unsuited for general use, but they have 
been made to cross the other swine of the coun- 
try, and the progeny exhibit much fineness of 
form and aptitude to fatten : their flesh too is 
delicate, on which account the Neapolitan crosses 
are in considerable favor in several parts of Eng- 
land. But there are other races of Italy which 
might, with greater benefit than that of Naples, 
have been introduced into this country ; the best 
hogs of Italy are supposed to be produced in 
the Duchy of Parma ; they are of larger size 
than those of Naples, while they possess even 
greater aptitude to fatten, and yield pork equally 
white and delicate." 



AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL IN BUCKINGHAM. 

A few weeks ago Mr. J. F. Schermerhorn, a 
gentleman with whom we have been slightly 
acquainted for several years, informed us that 
he had purchased an establishment known as 
the "Female Collegiate Institute" in Bucking- 
ham, which he intended to devote to the estab- 
lishment of an agricultural school. He pro- 
mised to develope his plans more fully to us at a 
future day, and we forbore to mention the sub- 
ject until we heard farther from him ; but in the 
meantime, we find the following in the New 
York Farmer, which may be interesting to our 
readers. 

We look with great interest to this projet of 
Mr. Schermerhorn. Every thing will depend 
upon the details of his plan : a failure will strike 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



103 



a severe blow at agricultural improvement ; but 
if he can so educate the young men placed un- 
der his charge, that when they return to their 
homes they can make more money from the 
same means than their neighbors, then will his 
labors be crowned with success, and then need | 
he entertain no fears of a want of patronage. ! 
If he cannot teach them this, no matter how 
learned he may make his pupils, he has done 
little for them, and nothing for agriculture. 

At a meeting of the New York Farmers' 
Club, Mr. Schermerhorn being called to the 
chair, remarked, 

"I am here accidentally. You honor me 
with the chair. I thank you, gentlemen ; and 
as I have long felt the immeasurable value of 
agriculture, I will say what I think, in a few 
words. I have long looked in vain to the State 
Legislature for encouragement to agriculture. 
It is a remarkable fact that our General and 
State governments have legislated for every and 
all interests except one, and that one the greatest 
of all, agriculture ! Surely the public funds i 
should be used for the establishment on solid j 
foundations, of proper schools for agriculture. — j 
When Franklin said that the growing of two 
blades of grass where but one grew before, made 
the grower a benefactor of mankind, he said a 
great truth. If science can make thirty bushels 
of wheat where only ten grew before, who can 
dispute its value ? As to my plan, I have passed 
the last year in Virginia. I found there a build- j 
ing of about 180 feet in length by 36 in width, | 
containing 52 rooms, large and small — some of! 
them large lecture rooms, well ealcalated for my 
Agricultural College. There are 120 acres of 
land attached to it. The building is of brick, 
three stories high. The land is what is termed 
in Virginia tired; it is the very place for my ex- 
periment ; I mean to render that tired land ac- 
tive, healthy, and vigorous, by the application 
of science and industry. I am sure of success ; 
when I want them, I shall add to the farm about 
300 acres more. I have been looking about for 
proper persons to be employed as Professors. I 
want one of Language, one of Philosophy and 
Mathematics, and one of Practical Agricultural 
Chemistry. This last professorship is difficult 
to fill. I must have a young man, one who is 
well read, who is enthusiastic in the cultivation 
of the soil. I hope that I shall be able to find 
the right kind of a man. I mean that my stu- 
dents shall be able to lake hold of any profes- 
sion ; but my main purpose is to make them 
practical, scientific farmers. I mean that, like 
physicians, they shall know well the diseases of 
soils and the remedies. They shall take a spe- 
cimen of soil and determine practically what are 
the diseases and the remedies. Every boy that 



possesses the necessary faculties, shall be able 
to do this himself. I shall teach the boys that 
in farming, the first law is economy — that ruin 
ensues where the outlay on the farm exceeds 
the product! I shall cause the boys to le rn 
practically, with chain and compass, land sur- 
veying and civil engineering. They shall learn, 
when a stick of timber is required for any pur- 
pose, to go into the woods, select the best tree, 
and make no mistake by cutting my trees down 
to waste. They shall take a bag and hammer 
and collect minerals, and when brought home, 
thoroughly understand and describe what they 
are ; and the like practical course in botany. — 
In the garden, they shall cultivate all the useful 
vegetables and fruits, and not omit those that 
are merely ornamental ; nor shall they fail to 
understand the medicinal plants, and all useful 
plants, whether for man or animals. Boj 7 s get 
weary of study in confined rooms. I intend 
that mine shall use the old peripatetic plan. — 
They shall walk, and talk, and learn. I never 
saw a boy that did not want a spot in the gar- 
den to cultivate himself. He shall have one, 
and all the seeds and instruction. He shall per- 
fectly learn how to bud and to engraft. By 
mixing study, exercise, and amusement, in an 
agreeable variety, I hope to see them cheerful 
and strong of body. I shall have about ten 
acres for an experimental garden ; there we will 
plant all kinds of new seeds and plants : we 
will apply every manure, test them all, and 
when approved, transfer to the farm. So we 
will have the best animals — learn all their points ; 
best modes of crossing breeds, of feeding and 
keeping. We will teach the diseases of ani- 
mals and the remedies ; the most economical 
keeping and management; soiling and fatten- 
ing — all practically. We will raise everything 
for our table. I shall look out for new staple 
articles for cultivation — we must have some new 
ones. The mountainous portion of Virginia is 
one of the most admirable in this country for 
raising stock. No part of New England is 
comparable to it for raising sheep and stock of 
all kinds. We will improve the breeds of sheep, 
where it is required j they shall have good fleeces 
and carcasses ; and our boys shall see and learn 
how it is accomplished. 

"I am preparing a prospectus which will 
contain my plan of operations in better order. — 
I was called upon here unexpectedly, and have 
thrown out these ideas without the proper order. 
As to the professorship of agriculture, I shall 
have the advantage of the intelligent and tho- 
rough-bred agricultural scholar, Fleischman, of 
Washington. He will lecture for me for three 
months in the summer. He has received the 
full education as such in the best school of Eu- 
rope. I mean to apply art to agriculture — have 
a shop where the boys shall learn how to make 
every implement — stock a plough, make a hav- 



104 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



row, and every other implement. Virginia has 
many most respectable, talented and amiable 
gentlemen farmers — but I want to prepare a 
class of young men to become scientific gentle- 
men farmers." 



For the Southern Planter. 
THE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Editor } — I have received a copy of- the 
Constitution and proceedings of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, and find the honor of being 
one of the General Committee for Brunswick 
county has been conferred on me — for an honor 
I really consider it to be selected as one of the 
co-workers in such a work. I hope and believe 
that I have the planting and farming business 
of the State as much at heart as any of her 
sons, and am willing to give my time and be- 
stow my exertions to promote and improve this 
vital interest of our country as far as he who 
will go farthest. 

And whilst I fully appreciate the feelings of 
real patriotism which brought together the gen- 
tlemen who have commenced this good and 
glorious work by the formation of the Society, 
and am convinced that the right spirit is abroad 
to improve our condition, I fear that the plans 
adopted will not lead to success. Long articles 
do not suit the Planter; I will condense what I 
have to say, at the risk of being obscure. 

The basis of the Society, in my humble judg- 
ment, is not broad enough. 

1. The voluntary system, is no system at 
all — private contribution hardly ever comes up 
to the plans laid down in such societies — and 
the contributions fall entirely on the liberal and 
generous, therefore, unjust. 

2. The funds to be raised are too small, and 
will not do for Virginia what she really wants. 

3. The exhibitions and premiums, and meet- 
ings may diffuse a good deal of information 
around the place of meeting, but they will be 
powerless to penetrate the dark corners and coun- 
ties of the Commonwealth, which I fear would 
be nine-tenths of her soil and population. 

They who undertake the improvement of Vir- 
ginia agriculture, to any extent, undertake a 
gigantic work ; if they do not look well to what 
they have to do, and provide means adequate to 
the end, nothing can come of it but failure — 
which is worse than doing nothing. All of us 
know to what a state of poverty our soil is re- 
duced — what superficial and scourging culture 
is bestowed on it — what poor returns it makes 
for its annual cultivation. How many of our 
best and brightest sons and daughters abandon 
their native home every year, for the South and 
West. We all know too, in whose hands the 
cultivation of the soil is now placed, and has 
been placed for almost a century. Ignorance 



and most frequently the most bigoted ignorance, 
holds supreme dominion. In the county of 
Brunswick, (and is it not so in most other coun- 
ties?) how many are directing the cultivation 
of the soil who are qualified for nothing but 
day laborers? As I am not electioneering, I 
hope the truth will offend no one, and no small 
part of the difficulties in our way, is the igno- 
rance of our population — an ignorance wide- 
spread, alarming — lamentable — but regret it as 
we may, it is amongst us, and we have to deal 
with it. The capital vested in lands, slaves, 
stock, &c, in Virginia is very large, and is fully 
three-fourths, or more, of the entire wealth of 
the State. In any country, or in any age, was 
the same amount of capital, so little under the 
direction of science? Here, every man is born 
a farmer and politician. An exhausted soil 
and an ignorant population are the material we 
have to work on — to improve the one and en- 
lighten the other is surely a work in which the 
greatest intellect and the highest benevolence 
would feel proud to be employed. 

Will the plans and contemplated resources of 
the Society consummate these ends ? Will they 
even advance them to any beneficial extent? I 
fear not. If not, what shall be done ? for all 
seem to agree that something must be done. I 
will give an outline of my plan, and call upon 
my brother members and brother farmers to give 
theirs, that we may have the benefit of the best 
reflections of all. 

1. In the first place we must have money — 
and enough for our purposes, be it what it may, 
within our means — not to be raised by private 
subscription, but out of the public exchequer. 
We pay almost the whole taxes, and why should 
we not take enough of our own money for the 
promotion of our own peculiar interest ? Hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars have been thrown 
away on internal improvements, and no one said 
nay to it, and if the James River interest will 
allow us, why should we not call for enough to 
endow what the real tax payers want ? The 
planters and farmers have only to command in 
this and they will be obeyed. 

2. The institution we shall raise up should 
be complete in itself — dependent on no corpora- 
tion, society, or otherwise with the government 
than as an independent department of it. A 
Bureau of Agriculture, standing out from all 
others — with full means for all rightful purposes. 

3. It should be located on a large farm, the 
property of the institution, with all necessary 
houses, fixtures, &c. 

4. It should have two departments — one for 
apprentices, to be bound to the institution by 
the overseers of the poor, of the different coun- 
ties, who shall cultivate the farm under the most 
approved modes of cultivation, making all proper 
experiments, and these poor boys should receive 
during their apprenticeship for their labor a good 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



105 



support, and a good education, all of which to 
be provided by the institution. Here would be 
a field large enough for all experiments in plants, 
stock, implements connected with farming and 
gardening, and our boys would diffuse over the 
State, in a few years, improvements and habits 
that would astonish the most sanguine. The 
other department should be under the control of 
the best science that money could buy — the best 
chemist — mineralogist — geologist and botanist; 
they should lecture to the apprentices a part of the 
year. They should survey every county in the 
State, and every part of every county ; keep an 
accurate record and publish, as might be deemed 
advisable. They should also lecture, a part of 
the year, to a class, if one should attend, on 
these sciences as they may best promote the end 
in view; keep a diary of the weather — the 
quantity of rain, and all such things, and let 
the institution be the head of the husbandry of 
the State, where all statistics may be preserved. 
These scientific persons should find out what is 
in our soil, and let us know ; they should have 
no other business until every part of the State 
had been thoroughly explored, and its soil an- 
alyzed. Of course, if it were thought best, there 
might be an Eastern and a Western farm. 

These are mere suggestions — I have no pride 
in the thing ; let any one criticise them as much 
as he pleases, provided he will suggest some- 
thing better. 

After discussing and considering the subject, 
let us settle on something, and get petitions from 
the counties to the next General Assembly, and 
demand an endowment of an institution which 
is able to do " the State some service." 
Yours, very respectfully, 

E. B. Hicks. 

Lawrenceville ) March 29, 1845. 



ECONOMY. 

Perhaps the most marked trait in the charac- 
ter of the Southern farmer is the want of eco- 
nomy. Many reasons have been assigned for 
the depressed state of agriculture in the South. 
That our country enjoys the most unrivalled ad- 
vantages for the prosecution of agricultural pur- 
suits, is undenied, and undeniable: that the im- 
provements in this art have not kept even pace 
with other departments of science, is universally 
admitted. The inquiring mind, which seeks for 
reasons for every fact, has been engaged in the 
explanation of this phenomenon. Some have 
declared that the light of science was wanting 
to the pursuit of agriculture ; some have attri- 
buted the stationary character of this pursuit to 
the existence of a slave population, &c. &c. 
Vol. V—14 



That the science of agriculture is in its nature 
one of the most complex and intricate, a little 
consideration must satisfy the most careless ob- 
server; and the fact that a season is required to 
test an experiment, proves that experience, which 
is the foundation of true knowledge, is more 
difficult of attainment in this than in any other 
art. But this is true of agriculture every where, 
and only accounts for the retarded progress of 
the art when considered in relation to the world 
generally. It has been asserted, however, that 
in the southern part of the United States, the 
portion of the whole globe perhaps best adapted 
to the pursuit of agriculture, improvement lan- 
guishes most. Whilst we are not prepared to 
admit this charge to its fullest extent, we will 
confess that agricultural improvements encoun- 
ter peculiar difficulties in their progress through 
the Southern States ; not, as some imagine, for 
want of knowledge of the scientific discoveries 
in agriculture, for they, we believe, in truth, are 
very few, and are as well known to the enlight- 
ened farmers of the South as to any other por- 
tion of this Union. But the fact is, that amongst 
the highly favored, wealthy farmers of the South, 
a state of financial embarrassment prevails, that 
offers an insuperable bar to agricultural improve- 
ment. It is not uncommon to find a Southern 
farmer with real estate and negroes worth fifty 
thousand dollars, sadly embarrassed with a debt 
of twenty thousand. Our Northern friends will 
wonder how a man with fifty thousand dollars' 
worth of property can be seriously embarrassed 
with a debt of twenty thousand, but a Southern 
man will readily understand the feelings and 
sentiments which make it so distasteful to part 
with that peculiar kind of property in which a 
large portion of our funds is vested. But un- 
less he sell his slaves, the farmer cannot part 
with an acre of his ground, which is, in his 
opinion, hardly sufficient to keep them employed. 
Thus it is, that the debt is not only retained, but 
perhaps from the same cause from which it ori- 
ginated, it is increased, and to provide for the 
interest alone, absorbs all the funds and much 
of the time of the improvident farmer. It were 
bootless to look to the origin of this state of 
things ; it could perhaps be traced to the fact of 
expensive habits derived from a wealthy ances- 
try, whilst the enormous profits that justified 
them in former years, has altogether ceased in 
later times ; for whilst there is no difficulty in 
expanding your expenses in prosperity, the con- 



106 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



traction in adversity is not quite so easy. Be 
that as it may, the fact of a very general pecu- 
niary embarrassment amongst even the wealthy 
portion of the agricultural community in the 
South, is not to be denied ; and this circumstance 
alone, when fully considered,.will be found suffi- 
cient to account for the retarded state of agri- 
cultural improvement in the South. Money is 
the great lever with which the world is both 
raised and lowered, and we know of no improve- 
ment that can be effected without it. Suggest 
to a farmer a system of cultivation by which 
his exhausted fields may be rested and restored ; 
he is fully aware of it, but he tells you that the 
corn from that field is devoted to the liquidation 
of a debt already incurred ; prove to him that 
if he is deprived of this resource for a year or 
two, it will only be to double the product in after 
time; he knows it; but even with the 3 T ield of 
that field, he fears that his income for the year 
will fall short of his expenses. He hopes that 
it will be better after a while, but this year, he 
must "make everything tell." Show him a 
valuable labor-saving machine, an investment 
in which would be equivalent to an interest of 
fifty per cent., his answer is, t£ my dear sir, 1 
am a borrower, not an invester of money ;" and 
bo he is, poor fellow. It is not the want of sci- 
entific knowledge ihat keeps that man's fields 
poor, and induces the most skinning system of 
cultivation, but it is the want of pecuniary 
means. 

What is the remedy for this state of things % 
We answer emphatically, retrenchment and eco- 
nomy. Begin with yourself ; curtail your indi- 
vidual expenses, go through every member of 
your household, cut down and pare off every 
where; teach 3'our children that the conveniences 
and elegances purchased of the milliner and the 
mercer, may be substituted, in a great measure, 
by their own handicraft. Your own part is 
nothing, but to deprive those you love of that 
to which they have been accustomed, is, we 
know, a bitter pill ; but it must be taken. In the 
great fall of agricultural products,, there is no 
help for it. 

Do not tell us that you already practise eco- 
nomy to its fullest extent. My dear sir, you 
don't begin to know the meaning of the word. 
What is your income ? About $1,500 — well, 
go to the North and see how a farmer with an 
income of $2,000 lives, compare your expendi- 
tures with his, and then see if you know any 



thing about economy. And whilst you are 
there, observe the difference between his case 
and yours — he probably has at the end of the 
year eight hundred or a thousand dollars to de- 
vote to the improvement of his land, which im- 
provement probably secures him a surplus of 
twelve or fifteen hundred dollars at the end of 
the next, year, and so he goes on, getting richer 
and richer, whilst you are getting poorer and 
poorer. Suppose your situations to be nearly 
the same in 1845, work this thing out, and see 
where you will both be in 1855. 

There is one point upon which we will lake 
the liberty of giving you the gentlest hint in the 
world. Be not afraid in this propose I system 
of reform of any opposition from your wife. — 
Come out like a man and explain to her the ne- 
cessity for it ; women are always more frugal 
and self-denying than men 5 we will answer for 
her. 

It is astonishing how not only the price, but 
the real value of land, is effected by the econo- 
mical habits of a neighborhood. We were sen- 
sibly struck with this fact in a conversation last 
summer with an intelligent gentleman from 
Rockingham. We were both at the time in 
the county of Albemarle, and something was 
said about the high price for which land was 
sold in that county. The Rockingham gentle- 
man remarked, that similar land in his own 
county, not at all more productive, farther from 
market, would sell for one-third more money. — 
He was then asked, why he did not sell in 
Rockingham and purchase in Albemarle. He 
replied because he found, upon a fair calcula- 
tion, that the land w r as cheaper in Rockingham 
than in Albemarle ; that is, that owing to the 
different habits and customs of the people, he 
could lay up more money from an investment in 
the one than the other. This is sound reason- 
ing, and it is the reasoning upon which men act. 
This is the reasoning by which men are induced 
to give a hundred dollars an acre for lands in 
New York or Pensylvania, whilst lands equally 
productive can be purchased in Virginia for half 
the money. 

Those who know us will hardly suspect us, 
in making these remarks, of a base or niggardly 
spirit. No one can despise more than we do 
the miserly disposition, which induces some 
men to deprive themselves of the comforts and 
elegancies of life for the mere sake of hoarding 
money. We recommend them the practice of 



107 



economy by which weahh may be accumu- 
lated. 

"Not for to hide it in a hedge, 

Nor for a train attendant; 
But for the glorious privilege 

Of being independent." 

And in the words of the same immortal poet, 
we say lo you, gentle reader, 

"May you better reck the rede 
Than ever did the adviser." 



For the Southern Planter. 
FARM PEN. 

Mr. Editor,-— The farmers look to you, sir, as 
the expounder of the law; therefore, I have 
taken the liberty of addressing this note to you 
on the subject of a farm pen. This pen has a 
shelter in it open to the south ; the back, at the 
north, is tighr, consequently it is warm. This 
pen since November last has been regularly and 
evenly littered and limed under the shelter, as 
well as outside, until about the 1st February, at 
which time it was some two feet deep. When 
I saw ii, on a visit to the owner, he knowing 
my fondness for such things, soon invited me in ; 
after some conversation, L asked for a fork or 
grubbing hoe: a few places were dug in the 
centre of the pen, where (just as I expected) it 
was found to be not much, if at all, decomposed ; 
we then dug several places under the shelier, 
and to our perfect astonishment it was found to 
be beau i if idly decomposed and fit for almost any 
crop forthwith. That most delightful odor of 
ammonia, which is or ought to be interesting to 
the farmer, was given out as soon as the mass 
was disturbed. Now, sir, the object of this note 
is lo request that you will please give your opi- 
nion of the whys and wherefores of the decom- 
position under the shelter, and the non-decompo- 
sition without. Several gentlemen have been 
consulied on the subject, but no conclusion had — 
but all wondering at the fact. 

My sheet not being full I will make a few 
more remarks. For* your ediiorial in lhe March 
number of the Planter on the subject of the 
Stale Agricultural Society connected with a 
system of school education, I think every man 
in the State ought to tender you his most hearty 
thanks, and say well done, go on, we will assist 
you with all our might. You say, which is 
true loo, that the Legislature is always back- 
ward in appropriating money. Perhaps if it 
were more so on some subjects, it would be bet- 
ter. Well, sir, I think lhe people, the voters, 
could very easily have the Legislature to do 
what the}' want, done, if t h ey would set about 
it in the ricrht way. Let us vote for no man, 
then, that, will not pledge himself to carry out 
the measures for agricultural improvement so 



far as is in his power, that we desire. It is a 
strange fact, that candidates strongly solicit, our 
votes, and so soon as they have received them, 
the people, like sycophants, beg them by peti- 
tions, &c, to do what the county and State 
want done. The method above, suggested is 
perhaps the most sure and effectual one. Send 
none but the friends of agriculture and the edu- 
cation of the poor to the Legislature. 

Having yet a plenty of space, I have con- 
cluded to give a small experiment made on one 
acre of corn land. In April, 1844,1 had the 
rows laid off five feet apart, the furrows about 
ten inches deep. Elalf of this lot was manured 
with litter direct from the woods, filling the fur- 
row only from end to end, then covering the 
same by running four furrows, which formed a 
bed; the beds were slightly opened, and corn 
dropped about three feet apart, and covered with 
a hoe. The corn was worked all one way. — ■ 
The other half was managed precisely as the 
first, except the manure, which was coarse farm 
pen. From first to last, no difference in the 
looks of the corn could be detected. Several 
gentlemen saw it and appeared to be much 
pleased with the method. I could give you the 
names of them, or four of them, that 1 know 
you are personally acquainted with. When 
the corn was cribbed, it was measured in a flour 
barrel, allowing three measures/ to make five 
bushels ; the produce was forty bushels per acre 
of long, the short and rotten corn not measured. 
In 1841 the same lot was in corn and produced 
twenty bushels. Had there been nocuiiosiiy 
exhibited by those that saw it I should not have 
named or noticed it in this way. 

The Planter has a few fast friends among us, 
and I am pleased to say that there can be no 
question but we are benefited by it. 
With great respect, 

I am your obedient servant, 

J. Bunch. 

Chuckatuck, Nansemond, March IS, 1845. 

We are much obliged to Mr. Bunch for the 
kind and complimentary manner in which he 
writes to us, individually, and we hope shortly 
by a personal acquaintance to strengthen a 
friendship that a more distant intercourse has 
been cementing for years. 

With respect to the two piles of manure, one 
cf which was decomposed, whilst the other was 
not, we should like to have an opportunit}' of 
cross-examining the witness, before we are called 
on to pronounce a judicial opinion. We can 
well understand that in the pile exposed to the 
weather, all the soluble salts may have been 
washed out by the rains, whilst they were pre- 
served in the one under cover. Hence the per- 



108 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



fume in the one, that was wanting in the other. 
Moreover, lime, whilst in small quantities it pro- 
motes deca} 7 , like salt, when applied in larger 
proportions acts as an antiseptic. It may have 
been that the vegetable decomposition, out of 
doors, was prevented by the action of an over- 
dose of lime. 



A TRUE PICTURE. 

The following picture of a Southern planter, 
as we too often find him, is from the graphic 
pen of our friend Wilson, of the Planters' Ban- 
ner. There is a deuced sight more truth than 
poetry in it. By-and-by our planters will pro- 
bably learn a little gumption, and then we shall 
be happy to see the picture reversed, but until 
then candor compels us to acknowledge its cor- 
rectness. — Tropic. 

"Now for the picture of the planter. He 
wouldn't sell a chicken, nor a dozen of eggs, 
nor a bushel of peaches, nor a calf, for any con- 
sideration. He is above that ! He raises cotton — 
he does ! He rides in a six hundred dollar car- 
riage, for which he is in debt. His daughters 
thrum a piano that never will be paid for. He 
buys corn which he could raise at ten cents a 
bushel, and pays sixty cents for it, after two and 
a half per cent, advance to his commission mer- 
chant. He could raise his own tobacco, yet he 
pays $3 a pound for ' Richmond scented.' He 
could raise his own hogs, yet he patronizes Cin- 
cinnati. The consequences are disastrous. Be- 
ing the possessor of one staple, he fluctuates 
with the market of that article. He takes the 
1 Price Current' — he pays postage — he gobbles 
down the English news like a cormorant. If 
he sells to-day, he'll lose— therefore, he'll wait 
for better advices. He is 'mixed up' in cotton, 
and is a gambler therein. Meantime he wants 
money • drafts on his factor ! He wants cotton 
goods and clothes for his plantation, that be 
could make at home. He orders them, and 
feels 'large.' The manufacturer, the insurer, 
the shipper, the freighter, the drayman, the 
warehouse man, the seller, and finally, the 
commission merchant, all have a finger in the 
pie of profits, and the pround, foolish planter 
pays them all. The year closes, and he is ' up 
to his eyebrows' in debt! This is the result of 
his not 'calculating,' nor even guessing the dif- 
ference between farming and planting. One 
supports a family ; the other supports pride, until 
pride gets a fall." 



For the Southern Planter. 
WARD : S WHITE WHEAT. 

JSlr. Editor, — In the January number of the 
Southern Planter, page 19, 1 observe a few 
words said about Ward's white bearded wheat, 



supposed to be described by Gen. Harmon, as 
follows: "Kentucky while bearded, better known 
in Western New York as Hutchinson's, or 
bearded flint, or Canada flint." 

Whether it is the same kind as that known 
in this section of country, as "Ward's white 
bearded," I am not able to say. The kind known 
in this vicinity by that name has a tolerably 
long beard, and resembles very much, when 
ripening, the variety called the " golden shuck." 
When ripe, the shuck is of a reddish brown, the 
straw is, near the ground, about as solid as that 
of the white flint, and ripens about as early as 
that variety. It has been extensively cultivated 
in this and the adjoining counties for the last 
eight or nine years. A gentleman informed me 
a few days ago that his father carried some of 
it with him to Kentucky, when he moved there 
some seven or eight years ago. This wheat 
was propagated by me from four heads which 
I found growing in my wheat patch in the sum- 
mer of 1830. About one head and a half was 
wasted before 1 discovered that it was while ; I 
then rubbed out the balance and sowed it a few 
days before Christmas. I continued to sow the 
product each year, without taking much pains 
with it. The harvest of 1833 I reaped four 
bushels and five-eighths, from which the next 
harvest I reaped about ninety-six bushels, which 
was more than double the quantity necessary to 
sow my crop ; the balance, by my recommenda- 
tion, was purchased of me, by my neighbors, 
for seed ; they were very well pleased with it. 
Nearly all I made to spare, for several years, 
was readily sold at the Richmond price, delivered 
at my granary. I still continue to cultivate it, 
and now, after about thirteen years experience, 
I have no hesitation in saying that it is, in my 
opinion, the best kind I have ever seen. With 
regard to it, I can endorse the opinion expressed 
a few years ago by an old negro man of mine ; 
he came to me in the wheat patch, in harvest, 
and said, " Master, I am an old man, and have 
seen a heper kinds of wheat in my life, but this 
kind of ours stands every thing better lhan any 
kind I have ever seen." It is still in this vici- 
nity, I believe, more generally cultivated than 
any other kind. Some have fallen out with it, 
and sought for some other kind, which will, in 
turn, share the same fate. I am not surprised 
at it, as it is my opinion, that the very best kind 
of wheat will after a few years degenerate, if 
sowed upon land not well adapted to its growth ; 
whereas, if sowed on land well adapted to it, it 
will, with ordinary care, rarely if ever degener- 
ate. If those farmers whose land is not suited 
to the growth of the wheat crop, would make 
it a rule (and let it be like the law of the Medes 
and Persians, which altereth not,) once at least 
in two years to procure their seed wheat from 
some care-taking person whose land is well 
adapted to its growth, they would, in my opinion, 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



109 



be greatly benefited, and would not so often have 
to seek for a new variety ; and they would have 
less cause to complain of short crops, and would 
not have so much to say about spelt, cheat, &c. 

I said to two of my friends once that the grub 
worm crawled or walked on his back, with his 
feet up. They laughed heartily at the notion, and 
said it was reversing the order of nature. I 



reckon I should be laughed at if I was to say 
that spelt and cheat could be propagated from 
wheal; but as I do not know it positively, I 
wont say so. 

I am, respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

N. Ward. 
Home, Nottoway i March 18, 1845. 



BUDDING AND GRAFTING. 




We copy the cut above and the following ex- 
cellent article from Affleck's Farmers' and Gar- 
deners' Almanac : 

"Although it is generally better for a farmer 
to go to a nursery, and there select the young 
trees he may require, yel every one ought to 
have a knowledge of grafting and budding — 
with this view a sketch descriptive of the pro- 
cess has been prepared, and is here offered. 

11 Slocks for grafting or budding are produced 
either by sowing seed, or from layers, suckers 
or cuttings; but .the stock must be of ihe same 
natural family as that to which the graft be- 
longs, or have a close affinity to it. To use 
others — as the sycamore for the pear and apple, 
the walnut for the peach, &c. — may do as a 
matter of amusement or experiment, but can be 
of no permanent and real advantage. In graft- 
ing, mere propagation should not be the only 
object, for to secure a permanent union between 
the stock and graft is of far more importance. 
For apples, seedlings of the apple and the crab. 
Pears, those of the wild species or of the quince. 
Plums, seedlings of the common or wild plum. 
Cherries, seedlings of any free-growing wild va- 
riety. Peaches, on the stock raised from seed. 
The apricot and nectarine, ihe larger sort of 
plums. The season for grafting may begin by 
the middle of March, and continue until the end 
of April ; the grafts being cut into lengths of 
four or five buds each ; the knife to be thin, 



small and keen-edged. Cut off the head of the 
stock and the base of the scion at a correspond- 
ing angle, so as to form, when put together, a 
neat splice: the tip of the stock, if larger than 
the graft, is to be cut off horizontally. Next a 
slit is made downwards in the centre of the 
sloping cut in the stock A, and a corresponding 
slit upwards in the face of the scion B; in ap- 
plying the scion to the stock, the tongue formed 
in the base of the former is inserted into the cleft 
of the latter, and so fitted that the inner bark 
may unite neatly and exactly on one side ; the 
splice is then tied and covered with clay or 
waxed bandage. Other methods might be men- 
tioned, but it will suffice for our purpose to in- 
clude cleft and root grafting; the former being 
adopted where the stock is much larger than 
the graft, when the head of the stock is cut off, 
and a perpendicular slit made, D, the scion being 
sloped on both sides, C, E, and inserted like a 
wedge into the cleft of the stock. Root-grafting 1 
is performed on a root a little thicker than the 
graft, and the more fibrous ihe belter; a quan- 
tity of them may be procured in the fall, and 
packed away in sand or earth in a cellar, those 
from young trees being most desirable ; the plan 
represented at. A, B, wdl answer best, and when 
grafted they may be packed away in earth in 
the cellar until the spring, when they may be 
planted out. in nursery rows. 

" Budding. — This mode of propagation is ap- 
plicable not only to fruit-trees but to ornamental 



110 



THE SOUTHE 



RN PLANTER. 



trees and shrubs, including the rose, and there 
are some fruits that can scarcely be multiplied 
in any olher way. It consists in removing a 
bud with a portion of the bark from a tree, and 
inserting it in a slit of the bark of another tree. 
The season for performing this operation is in 
July or August, when the buds destined for the 
following year are completely formed in the axils 
of the leaves, and when the portion of bark parts 
freely from the wood beneath ; the buds to be 
preferred being those on the middle of the shoot. 
There are many forms of budding ; but that 
which is the simplest and most easily performed 
need alone to be described. The operator should 
be provided with a budding-knife in which the 
cutting edge of the blade is rounded off at the 
point, and having a thin ivory or bone handle, 
like a paper folder, for raising the bark of the 
stock. A horizontal or transverse incision is 
made in the bark, quite down to the wood, and 
from this incision a perpendicular slit is drawn 
downwards to the extent of perhaps an inch. 
The slit has now the resemblance of the letter 
T, see F ; a bud is then cut from the tree that 
is wished to be propagated, having a portion of 
the wood attached to it, so that the whole may 
be an inch and a half long as at G. The bit 
of wood is then gently withdrawn, care being 
taken that the bud adhere wholly to the bark or 
shield^ as it is called, as at H, which is the re- 
verse of G. The bark on each side of the per- 
pendicular slit being cautiously opened with the 
handle of the knife, the butt and shield are in- 
serted, as at I ; the upper tip of the shield being 
cut off horizontally, and brought neally to fit 
the bark of the stock at the transverse incision. 
Slight ties of moistened bass matting or candle- 
wick are then applied, and in about a month or 
six weeks these ligatures may be taken away, 
when, if the operation has been successful, the 
bud will be fresh and full, and the shield firmly 
united to the wood ; the next spring a strong 
shoot is thrown out from this bud, and to this 
the stock is headed down in the course of the 
summer." 



EXTENSIVE SALE OF IMPROVED SHORT 
HORNS. 

We see by a notice in the Cultivator, that 
Mr. E. P. Prentice designs selling, on the 25th 
of June next, his herd of Durham cattle. Mr. 
Prentice, whose word is a sufficient guarantee 
to those who know him, pledges himself, that 
with two or three exceptions, this sale will be 
made without reserve ; and we doubt not great 
sacrifices will be made. To those who admire 
and desire the choicest of Durhams, no better 
opportunity of supplying themselves could pos- 
sibly be afforded. 



This sale will take place at Mount Hope, 
within one mile of the city of Albany, and Mr. 
Howard, of the Cultivator, offers to take charge 
of any orders for purchasers that may be sent 
him ; but we would advise all those who can 
spare the time to attend the sale in person. — 
Mount Hope itself is worth a visit, the pleasure 
of Mr. Prentice's acquaintance is worth another, 
and a sight of his stock is worth a third. 



For the Southern Planter. 
VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL PAPERS. 

Mr. Editor, — I have seen your dun in the 
last number of the Planter, and must say it is 
a very reasonable one. Want of opportunity 
prevented my being more prompt in the pay- 
ment of my subscription. As, however, this is 
the first time you have caught me in arrears, 
you may afford to excuse this small default. — 
Had you applied your sixty day rule with 
strictness, your subscribers could not have mur- 
mured, because they had fair notice, yet 1 thank 
you for the extension of lime, and should deem 
myself a hardened transgressor if I did not avail 
myself of the thirty days of grace, allowed for 
reformation. 

Permit me here to to say that I differ as well 
with those who think your paper worth only 
eighty-seven and a half cents, as with those 
who think it worthless. If I arise from the pe- 
rusal of one, two or even twelve numbers of the 
Planter, with only arte new idea upon the sub- 
ject of agriculture, I consider that 1 have re- 
ceived valuable consideration for my dollar. In- 
deed, sir, whenever 1 feel at a loss upon any 
subject connected with farming, I seize my 
Planter. If I do not find precisely what I wish 
I always find something instructive, and thus 
glean from each number some hint, or if you 
prefer, some idea, which I can, with advantage, 
apply to my own farm. By compiling each 
idea at a dollar you will discover that in the 
course of twelve months your readers get twelve 
times the worth of their money, and I Lie whole 
may be stated in figures as follows, viz: 
51 ideas (corresponding with the 51 numbers of 

the Planter) at one dollar each, $51 CO 
Cr. 

By amount paid in subscription, 5 CO 

Balance, due Planter, $46 00 

The fact is, gentlemen can easily test the va- 
lue of the paper by contrasting the present with 
the past — by comparing the present amount of 
agricultural knowledge with that pertaining io 
the period preceding the publication of agricul- 
tural journals. To the farmers of Virginia I 
consider the Planter all-important, as well be- 
cause it contains the kind of information suited 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



Ill 



to their soil, climate and product, as that this 
information is imparted in plain, practical and 
easily comprehended language, or in other words, 
in their mother tongue. It is not to me a matter 
of surprise that a journal originally published a 
little south of you, fell through. It was first a 
farmer, next a philosopher, and lastly a politi- 
cian. To the student in his closet its specula- 
tions were not only entertaining, but instructive. 
But to the plain, common sense farmer they 
were useless, because couched in language as 
incomprehensible to him as Hebrew. This error, 
the Planter has avoided, and I hope our farmers 
will continue to bestow a liberal patronage upon 
it, for nothing can or will so clearly mark a de- 
cline in the agricultural spirit of the age as the 
fall of agricultural papers. A little reflection 
will convince those who are inclined to depre- 
ciate such publications, that they visit their own 
transgressions upon innocent heads. By the 
frequent and attentive reading of papers they 
acquire new thoughts, which by repeated recur- 
rence become so familiar to their minds that they 
learn to consider them as original, and thus, in 
practice, enjoy all the benefit of the editor's toil 
without allowing him even that pittance of praise 
which he so richly merits. 

Wishing all success to the Planter, 
I remain yours, respectfully, 

Mayo B. Carrington. 

March 21, 1845. 

Not to be outdone, we square the account 
with Mr. Carrington, stated on the opposite side, 
by the following entry : 
M. B. Carrington in account with 

Southern Planter, Cr. 
By opinion of our merits expressed in the 

foregoing, valued at $46 00 



FENCE POSTS, 

A practical farmer informs the Hartford Times, 
that in taking up a fence that had been set four- 
teen years, he noticed that some of the posts 
remained nearly sound, while others near rotted 
ofT at the bottom. On looking for cause, he 
found that those posts which were set limb part 
down, or that were set as they grew were rotted 
off. This fact is worthy the attention of farmers. 



GUANO. 

We have received a copy of the Constitution 
and By-Laws of the American Agricultural 
Association of New York; an institution which 
seems to have gone into operation under very 
favorable auspices. 

From this Association we have received the 
following Report upon the subject of Guano. 



Five or six cargoes of this fertilizer have already 
been sold in the Richmond market, and the de- 
mand continues unabated. Every thing, th re- 
fore, touching an article which fills so large a 
space in the public mind, must be interesting to 
our readers, especially a report coming from 
such authority as this. We, therefore, give it 
entire. 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 
NEW YORK REPORT ON GUANO. 

"Resolved, That the Association cause an ana- 
lysis to be made of the cargoes of guano from 
Ichaboe and Peru, now in the market for the 
use of members and all persons in the neighbor- 
hood ; and that a report be drawn up with the 
analysis containing suggestions for the applica- 
tion of the manure ; the whole to be published 
as early as practicable in the agricultural papers 
of this city and vicinity." 



PERUVIAN GUANO. 




Uric acid, - 


105 


Ammonia, - 


190 


Phosphoric acid, 


140 


Lime and magnesia, 
Salts of soda and potash, 
Oxalic acid, with carbonic and 


160 


e-o 




muriatic acids, 


13-0 


Water, - 


130 


Sand, - 


20 


Volatile and organic matters, 


65 




100-00 


ICHABOE GUANO. 




Ammonia, - 


135 


Humic acid, - - 


40 


Phosphates, - 


250 


Oxalic, &c, acids, 


20-0 


Salts of soda, &c. 


7-0 


Water and volatile matter, 


275 


Sand, . - - - . 


3-0 




10000 



Prices and Relative Value of the Peruvian and 
•African Guano — These specimens are both very 
fair, and represent the peculiarities of the two 
kinds of guano. The absence of uric acid in 
the African variety, is the cause of its inferiority ; 
for that body decaying gradually in the soil, 
continues to yield carbonate of ammonia for a 
long time, so that the stimulating effects of the 
guano are seen the next year, whilst the African 
is more fleeting. The prices of the two are, for 
Peruvian $45, and for African $35 per ton, for 
quantities amounting to five tons ; and this may 
be considered, all things being taken into the 
account, a fair representation of their value in 
agriculture. 

The African being soluble to the extent of 40 
per cent., is better adapted for watering plants, 



112 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



and where very rapid growth is wanted. The 
Peruvian, on the other hand, acts for a longer 
time, and is better calculated for crops which 
continue to grow vigorously during many weeks. 
The two will probably produce very similar ef- 
fects for one crop ; but the Peruvian is much 
more active on the second crop. 

Crops to which it is Applied. — It is hardly ne- 
cessary to state, that the application may be 
made to every crop, for experiments are alrea 'y 
multiplied with nearly every common plant or 
tree : to enumerate a few is sufficient. Wheat, 
corn, grass, the cerealia, sugar-cane, tobacco, 
apple, pear, and other fruit trees, flowers, cab- 
bages, turnips, and other cruciferous plants ; the 
experiments are few r est on leguminous plants. 
But the effect of guano will not be equal on all ; 
for those plants requiring most stable manure, 
such as tobacco, turnips and corn, are more be- 
nefited than grass, oats, or such as require less ; 
the chief effect of the manure being due to the 
quantity of the ammonia it contains. The rea- 
son guano is serviceable to all plants, arises from 
its containing every saline and organic matter 
they require as food. 

Kinds of Soil to which it may be Applied. — It 
has been used beneficially on all soils ; for as it 
contains every element necessary to plants, it is 
independent of the quality of the soil — one great 
point being attended to, that the land be in good 
tilth] for, otherwise, the tender roots of the ve- 
getable find an obstruction to free growth, and 
are crippled. Poor, well-tilled soils exhibit most 
increase by guano, for in them some essential to 
the growth of plants is more likely to be absent. 

Amount to be Applied. — On wheat 250 lbs. per 
acre will be an average for a fair soil ; 300 lbs. 
for one that is poor, and 200 for a good soil. — 
Corn, potatoes, turnips, cabbages, and garden 
vegetables, will require 300 lbs. in fair lands; 
but the amount may be diminished by 50 lbs. if 
two applications are made instead of one. For 
grass, rye, and oats, 200 lbs. will be enough. 

Time and Mode of Application. — Seeds may 
be prepared by soaking in a solution of two lbs. 
of guano to the gallon of water, and this will 
answer for a first manuring, if they are left suf- 
ficiently long to exhibit signs of germination. 
Wheat and other small grains should be steeped 
m this solution about sixty hours, corn about 
one hundred hours. Thus steeped, the seeds of 
smut will also be destnyyed. Half the quantity 
per acre to be applied when the plant has fairly 
started, and is in second leaf. By this timely 
addition, the effects of many insects are avoided, 
and the seedling at once takes on a robust habit. 
The remaining half should be applied to the 
small grain crops when they are throwing out 
new stems, or tillering; to corn, as the tassel 
appears, or at the second hoeing, and so with 
other hoed crops. This application should be 
made, therefore, at the latest period of working, 



and as nearly before flowering as practicable. 
The guano should be sowed with a mixture of 
fine soil, gypsum or charcoal, to give it bulk, 
and divide the particles. No lumps should be 
lhrown amongst the plants, for they burn them ; 
and where an extensive application is to be 
made, it is better to screen the manure and 
pound the lumps. In sowing, reach the soil, if 
possible, for it is unserviceable to sprinkle it on 
the plants, and frequently destroys them. Se- 
lect a season when the land is wet or moist, or 
when rain may be expected ; for in dry weal her 
the guano does not answer well, or even does 
injury, by acting as a caustic on vegetation. — 
But if the crop suits, always prefer manuring 
the plant or hill; do this whilst hoeing; less 
guano is thus used, and more certain effects re- 
sult. One tables poonful to the hill of corn, to- 
bacco, potatoes, &c, is an abundance for each 
application. If a solution be preferred, mix one 
pound in ten gallons of water, and water spar- 
ingly with this on the soil, and not on the plants, 
at the times before mentioned, taking care to 
stir up the insoluble portion when applied. For 
this purpose, the African variety will be most 
suitable. Or, where rapid growth is wanted, 
irrespective of seed, the clear solution may be 
applied ; the insoluble matter (phosphates, &c.) 
being reserved for wheat and corn. Guano may 
be composted with common soil, or any thing 
but lime and unleached ashes; for these liberate 
the free ammonia, and thus diminish the effects 
of the manure. 

Value, Compared vrith other Manures. — So far 
as the experiments in England and Scotland 
may be adduced, one cwt. of guano is equal to 
about five tons of farm-yard manure on an 
average; but it is much higher for turnips than 
for grass, &c. It would be advisable that in 
the very different climate of the United States, 
comparative experiments be made on this point. 
Let twenty single cart loads of stable manure 
be used per acre on wheat, corn, &c, and con- 
trasted with four cwt. of guano. It would also 
be of service to the agricultural world, that some 
experiments were made on the value of the or- 
ganic and inorganic portions of guano. A plat 
of ground eight square yards may be divided 
into two parts, half manured with the ordinary 
guano, and half with the ashes remaining after 
burning. In this way the proportionate effect 
of the organic and saline parts would be esti- 
mated, and the conclusion be serviceable, inso- 
much as the saline matters can be mixed into a 
compost for a trifling sum, and thus the expense 



of guano avoided. 



March 12, 1845. 



D. P. Gardner, M. D. 



Notice. — This publication is made by the 
American Agricultural Association, not that 
parties may be induced to purchase guano, but 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



113 



that attention may be called to the varieties for 
sale, and other particulars for ihe diffusion of 
correct information. It is their intention to ex- 
amine all available manures, and make them 
known publicly, as well as the results of careful 
experiments in agriculture, horticulture, and the 
management of stock, and to issue not only in- 
formation from time to time, but a series of trans- 
actions, embodying the particulars of their ex- 
periments, analyses, &c. All those wishing to 
advance the cause of improvement are respect- 
fully solicited to become members, and forward 
suggestions for the advancement of agriculture. 
Letters or communications to be addressed, post 
paid, to the Secretary of the Executive Com- 
mittee, Dr. D. P. Gardner, 412 Fourth street, 
New York. 

By order of the Executive Committee. 

R. L. Pell, Chairman. 



BEES. 



Dr. Waterman gives, in the Cleaveland He- 
rald, his mode of catching the bee-miller or moth. 
He says, "1 took two white dishes, (I think 
white attracts their attention in the night,) or 
deep plates, and placed them on the top of the 
hives, and filled them about full of sweetened 
vinegar. The next morning I had about fifty 
millers caught ; the second night I caught fifty 
more; the third night being cold, I did not get 
any ; the fourth night being very warm, I caught 
about four hundred." 



CHINCHES. 

A gentleman very eminent in the science of 
bugology, an editor too who ought to be supposed 
to know every thing, informs us, that by simply 
anointing the joints and crevices of his bed- 
steads with lard in the spring of the year, his 
household escape the ravages of those devouring 
insects commonly denominated chinches. 

We believe it is a discovery of his own, and 
we think it ought to place his name, which he 
is too modest to give to the public, upon the 
same pinnacle with that of the inventor of the 
safety lamp and the protector from smallpox. 



For the Southern Planter, 
COCKLE. 

Mr. C. T. Botts : 

Dear »S/r, — Enclosed you will find one dollar 
for your valuable paper, the Planter, this year ; j 
valuable not only for its agricultural intelligence, 
but for the able and independent manner in 1 
which you expose all humbugs, either in farming , 
operations, stock, or labor-saving machines; and , 
Vol. V.— 15 



permit me to say that the public have been mora 
imposed upon by the latter than any other class 
of arjicles. We see an implement or machine 
advertised, and recommended as a 11 sine qua. 
non" and relying too much on what we see in 
advertisements, are induced to order, and at high 
prices, what, to our chagrin and loss, we find 
almost a worthless article, and soon serves to 
help fill a room with old lumber. 

Would that some plan could be devised by 
which the various implements, labor-saving ma- 
chines, &c, could be tested, so that the worth- 
less could be condemned, and the truly useful 
recommended to the public. It would be the 
means of bringing the useful into more general 
use, as a great many persons who would pur- 
chase them, and cannot afford to submit to the 
loss, are now deterred from doing so by the fear 
of imposition. 

If our law-makers could create a fund for the 
purchase of seeds and manures, implements and 
machines to be tested by a committee of intelli- 
gent farmers, whose report should be made to 
the succeeding Legislature, and made public, 
more essential service would be rendered the 
good old Commonwealth of Virginia than is 
now done by two-thirds of the time occupied in 
legislating. I would also have the State offer 
premiums for the best implement or machine for 
certain purposes, the invention or improvement 
to be made by native or resident citizens. 

I submit these views to you, hoping, if you 
can make any thing of them, that you will take 
them in hand, build upon them, and induce such 
action as will best promote the mechanical and 
agricultural interest of our good old State. 

I am now in want of a machine, and for the 
want of information, am at a total loss about it. 
It is a machine for separating cockle and cheat 
from wheat. I don't know that there is any 
thing that will answer the purpose, and if there 
is not, I've no doubt but a screen might be con- 
structed which would succeed, and which would 
free our crops entirely, or nearly so, of such 
stuff the second or third year, if not the first 
year, and give us much better seed wheat ; to 
the inferior quality of which I attribute much 
of the failure in that crop. 

My wheat is very much infested with cheat 
and cockle, which repeated farmings, and sub- 
stituting a board for the screen in the fan, and 
blowing hard, (which has been recommended 
by the millers,) together with soaking in strong 
brine, (on which the cheat floats,) would not re- 
move ; and for the want of a better sieve I took 
out the screen of my fan, and by putting in a 
small quantity, and sifting it slowly, was enabled 
to sift out all the cheat and all ihe cockle, save 
some of the largest grains, which would not 
pass through. A good deal of the wheat passed 
through, but what was left was large and of 
superior quality for seed. This was a very slow 



114 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER, 



and tedious process, and did not clean more than 
thirty bushels of my seed ; the balance of my 
crop which was seeded before this plan occurred 
to me, is thickly set in cockle, and unless 1 can 
have some more expeditious mode of getting- 
clear of it, the sale of my growing crop must 
be materially affected by it. It is idle to talk 
about pulling it out as has been suggested by 
some of my friends. It could not be done by 
all my force between this and harvest. 

Do you know of any machine that will an- 
swer the purpose? From my experience in 
sifting it, I think a cylinder made of cockle 
wire, say eighteen or twenty-four inches in di- 
ameter, and six or seven feet long, and fixed on 
an axle, with a hopper attached, and a little in- 
clined and made to revolve so that the wheat 
may pass in from the hopper, and as the cylinder 
revolves to pass out at the lower end, would 
answer the purpose, The cockle and cheat 
would fall through the meshes of wire. If 
there be such a machine I should like to get 
some information about it from you or some of 
your subscribers ; if there is not, I've no doubt 
that you might tax your ingenuity, if you can 
understand my idea about it, so as to construct 
something that will have the desired end. 

I am not one of those who defer to the last' 
moment; and am, therefore, desirous of procur- 
ing in time something to rid my wheat of the; 
pest complained of. Any aid that you can ren- 
der me in doing so will be thankfully received ! 

Your subscriber and well wisher, 

Albert E. Wrenn, 
Shoal Bay, Isle of Wight, Feb. 4 } 1845. 

We must apologize to Dr. Wrenn for the ap- 
parent neglect with which we have treated his 
communication. We placed it in the hands of 
a distinguished miller of this city, who returned 
it to us yesterday with the remark, that there 
was no pest so objectionable to the miller as 
cockle. He knows of no means of getting rid 
of it except by eradicating it from the field and 
repeated screening and fanning after the crop is 
harvested. 




For the Southern Planter. 

STATE OF THE WEATHER AND CROPS. 

Through the month of March we had in 
Amherst but two or three mists of rain, which 
were perhaps of no advantage to vegetation ; 
and every day of April, so far, has been remark- 
ably drying, in consequence of high winds. — 
Oats which were sowed in February do not now 
look as well as they did twenty or thirty days 
past, and those sowed lately cannot vegetate. — 
Wheat has nearly ceased to grow. Trees, grass, 



and other vegetables have been stopped in spring- 
ing by the combination of dry weaiher, and the 
three or four last days past of cold. Our do- 
mestic stock looked belter, and lived better 
through the winter, than usual, but are now 
suffering for want of proper nourishment. My 
son, who is my overseer, informs me that all the 
tobacco plants on my lands are dead, and so far 
as I can learn, this is the case throughout ihe 
neighborhood, except on moist spots. It is not 
yet, however, too late for sowing plants, pro- 
vided we can have favorable weather from the 
12th or 15th of this month to the planting sea- 
son. Under favorable circumstances tobacco 
may be planted up to the 10th of July and pro- 
duce a fair crop. The only chance now is to 
resow, and manure judiciously. I incline to 
think that tobacco snuff is the best manure 
which can be applied to a plant bed. Plaster 
of Paris is also beneficial, especially on such 
beds as we call old land ; and it is well to mix 
the tobacco snuff and plaster together ; say in 
the proportion of one measure of plaster to four 
of tobacco. I would sow at the rate of six or 
eight bushels of this compound to the acre. — ■ 
The ordure of fowls is a very rich manure, and 
answers well on plant beds ; but must be used 
cautiously, for perhaps a quantity more than 
two bushels to the acre would prove injurious, 

i will take upon me to give my fellow-planters 
one caution, and if the planting season should 
be late, as the present prospect would indicate, 
I earnestly entreat them to remember it. If 
there should be a good planting season, whilsl 
yet your plants are small, do not fail to plant r 
for you know not that another planting season 
may occur in time for a crop. I say if the sea- 
son is growing late, plant, although the leaves 
of your tobacco are no larger than your thumb 
nail. And yet another caution. Do not sell 
your last crop until you see the prospect for the 
present year. 

There is yet but little corn planted in this 
county, and indeed it is well, fu. the ground is 
dry several inches deep, consequently there could 
be no vegetation. I have determined not to 
plant until the May rain, when all my seed, as 
usual, will be soaked in strong tobacco ambery 
and rolled in plaster. If any should inquire 
why soak in amber, I answer, as often before 
published, that the amber is the richest kind of 
manure, and being gummy, it fastens a goodly 
portion of plaster to the grain, and lastly, no 
animal or insect will touch it, consequently I 
have no replanting. 

Some two or three weeks past it was thought 
we should have no fruit in this neighborhood, 
but I now learn that we may expect about one- 
fourth crop of every kind, unless the present 
cold should prove destructive. We have had 
ice for the last three mornings, but as the wind 
is high both day and night, the safety of the 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



115 



fruit will depend on the clearing up shower, 
whenever that may come. 

The water courses are perhaps lower than 
ever known at this season of the year, many 
saw-mills having ceased to work for lack of 
water. 

Considerable damage has been done by fires 
lately, in the destruction of houses, coal, wood, 
&c, and more may be expected. Although it 
may be advantageous at intervals to burn super- 
abundant litter on rich land, yet the burning of 
poor land is always injurious, and particularly 
so in the spring of the year. 

Tobacco cannot be handled this weather, con- 
sequently but little can be doing in the market, 
and perhaps our manufacturers may need before 
they get a supply. 

Wishing all prosperity to the State Agricul- 
tural Society, 

I remain, Za. Drummond. 

Amherst, April 8, 1845. 

P. S. — I have examined this morning and so 
far I discover no fruit is living. Nearly every 
particle of foliage of every kind is killed. There 
is no frost, for the weather is too dry, but the 
destruction is produced by ice or freeze. 

Z. D. 

April 9. 

The drought has been, for the season, most 
unprecedented, and the effects of that, combined 
with the excessive cold, have told most inju- 
riously upon every species of vegetation. There 
will not be fifty peaches raised within fifty miles 
of Richmond ; garden vegetables have been 
universally replanted, and the early wheat has 
been generally cut down by the frost in lower 
Virginia. We have, however, seen a very old 
gentleman who informs us that a similar cir- 
cumstance occurred in 1783, and that the roots 
of the wheat remaining strong and vigorous, 
new shoots put forth with great alacrity, and 
that the crop was neither later nor inferior to 
what it would have been without the accident. 

The late wheat is very promising. 



For the Southern Planter. 
CURRIE'S SCOTCH PLOUGH. 

Mr. Editor, — At the request of Mr. John 
Currie, of Richmond, I take pleasure in giving 
a brief statement of a plough recently invented 
by himself, and taken from his recollection of 
the best implements of this kind used in Scot- 
land. I have one now in use on my farm, near 
the city, and cannot say too much in praise of 
it — for ease of draught, level and smoothly 
turned furrows, together with great regularity 
and sufficient depth, either in clay, turf or sandy 



soils, it greatly surpasses any plough I have 
ever tried — so valuable and important and so 
very essential do I consider a first rate plough 
on a farm, that T do take pleasure in recom- 
mending this to the agricultural community. — 
A specimen can be seen at the office of Shields 
& Somerville, Cary Street, No. 137. 
Respectfully, yours, 

J. N. Shields. 
Richard Crouch. 

We have been called on to examine the 
plough alluded to above, and can testify to the 
substantial manner in which it is gotten up. — 
Mr. Currie is not only an excellent mechanic 
but a good farmer, and we know few gentlemen 
whose judgment we esteem more highly than 
that of Mr. Shields. 

The plough, we think, is not calculated to 
turn more than a nine inch furrow ; indeed we 
believe that that is as much as two horses can 
ever accomplish, to do the work in its greatest 
perfection. These ploughs cannot be sold for 
less than twelve dollars apiece. 



ADVANTAGE OF KEEPING MANURE 
COVERED. 

An experiment, conducted by the President 
of an Agricultural Society in England, shows 
that manure which was kept covered by nine 
inches in depth with earth, so that no evapora- 
tion escaped, produced four bushels more of 
grain per acre, than the same quantity and kind 
of manure applied to the same extent and quan- 
tity of land, but which had lain from the 13th 
of January to the 4th of April exposed to the 
weather. — Albany Cultivator. 



NEW BOOKS. 

From Messrs. Drinker & Morris we have re- 
ceived a copy of the American edition of Stew- 
art's Stable Economy. To Mr. A. B. Allen, 
the American Editor, the public are much in- 
debted for his additions to, and corrections of, this 
standard work of Professor Stewart. 

We have many scientific ireatises upon the 
diseases of the horse, which after all, are com- 
paratively useless in the hands of the ordinary 
practitioner, but in this work of Mr. Stewart, 
we have practical directions for the treatment of 
the healthy horse from his cradle, if we may 
say so, to his grave. The most complete and 
sensible directions are given for the construction 
of stables, the manner of breaking, training, 
grooming, feeding, driving, and in short, for 



116 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



every operation connected with the management 
of the horse — the whole gotten up in a very 
beautiful manner and handsomely illustrated 
with engravings. 

The book is sold for seventy-five cents ; for 
this notice, in a regular business wajr, we should 
have charged one dollar and fifty cents, and yet 
we think we are p:iid three times over in the 
copy with which we have been presented. 

From Messrs. Nash & Woodhouse we have 
received a copy of " Boussingault's Rural Eco- 
nomy," translated by Mr. George Law, "Agri- 
culturist." This is a volume of five hundred 
pages, handsomely gotten up, which is sold for 
one dollar and fifty cents. We mean to siudy 
it; for a slight glance at its contents satisfies 
us that it is a work not to be read but to be stu- 
died. We hope this fact will not deter those 
who desire to understand the science of their 
profession, from purchasing the work, for be as- 
sured, that there are few acquisitions really wor- 
thy of attainment that are to be had without 
labor. The celebrity of the author ought to 
ensure it a general sale and careful perusal. 

We are happy to hear from Messrs. Nash & 
W 7 oodhouse, who have lately opened a very 
elegant book store in our city, that they intend 
to pay particular attention to the agricultural 
department of their business. 

We are indebted to the author for a copy of 
a work entitled " Historical Collections of Vir- 
ginia," by Henry Howe. 

There is much of the curious and romantic 
connected with the early history of Virginia, 
and there is great need of a historian to collect 
the fragments whilst they are yet floating upon 
the tide of time. 

Mr. Howe's work is in its nature geographi- 
cal, biographical, anecdotical, and historical; 
and in the cursory examination which we have ! 
bestowed upon it we discern evidences of consi- 
derable labor and research. We know no work 
which will afford to the Virginian a more useful 
or interesting history of his native State. Mr. 
Howe seems to have collected a great deal of gos- 
sipping anecdote, which the more stately but less 
natural historian might have considered beneath 
his notice. A history of the counties is fur- 
bished in alphabetical order, interspersed with 
biographical memoranda of their most distin- 
guished citizens, and were it valuable only for 
its statistical information, we would commend it 
£ts a book of reference to our readers. It is 



liberally ornamented with engravings, sold only 
by travelling agents, and furnished at three dol- 
lars and fifty cents. 



MILE. 

There is a great difference in the number of 
yards contained in a mile in different countries. 
The following table, showing the difference will 
be very useful to many persons as a reference : 
Mile in England or America, 1,760 yards. 
" Russia, 1,100 " 

" Italy, 1,476 t( 

" Scotland and Ireland, 2,200 " 
11 Poland, 4,400 " 

" Spain, 5,028 " 

" Germany, 5,866 " 

" Sweden & Denmark, 7,223 « 
" Hungary, 8 ; S00 " 



REAPING MACHINES. 
Our ingenious young friend, J. S. Gallaher, 
of Winchester, has sent us a drawing and de- 
scription of a reaping machine, which he has 
lately invented. His object has been to get rid 
of the reel, with which he considers M'Cormick's 
to be encumbered, and also by the use of an 
endless band and a revolving rake, to deliver 
the wheat evenly and straighlly for the binder. 
If Mr. Gallaher succeeds in the latter object, 
he will save the raker from a very laborious 
operation. 

We expect soon to present our readers with 
a cut and further description of this implement. 



BOMMER. 

We received from Mr. Earnett, some time 
since, the article on our cover, which he re- 
quested us to insert as an advertisement. We 
wrote him in reply, that such was the prejudice 
in Virginia against Mr. Eommer and his method, 
that we thought he was only throwing away 
his money in paying for the advertisement ; but 
he informs us that such is his confidence in the 
value of this process, that he is not afraid to 
face even prejudice itself with it, and in confor- 
mity with his desire we insert his advertisement. 

W 7 e have not the least question that this pro- 
cess affords a speedy, and in many situations, 
an economical method of decomposing vegetable 
matter. As to Mr. Bommer's right to this pa' 
tent, we leave him to settle that matter with Mr. 
Ellsworth and the public. 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



117 



PEAS. 

We have received from Mr. Henry Clarke, 
for public distribution) a parcel of peas which 
according to his statement are worthy of atten- 
tion. He calls them Clay peas, but assures us 
that they will grow in any kind of soil. He 
says the pods are from eighteen to thirty-four 
inches long, and that if they are gathered when 
they are about twelve inches in length and 
served up like asparagus, that they are a capital 
substitute for that delightful vegetable. They 
require to be trained on a pole like butter beans. 

We have also received from Mr. Haxall a 
paper of peas called the Rocky Mountain pea, 
concerning which he has been furnished with 
the following statement : 

" In calling the public attention to these peas, 
I am well aware of how often our citizens have 
found themselves deceived by ardent descriptions 
on the one hand, or dreamy promises of profit 
on the other. These peas, however, will answer 



any reasonable expectation. I planted five 

j quarts of them about the 20th of May, in a 
piece of rough new ground, of sandy soil, and 
only middling in qualit}'. The product in peas 

j and in rich good hay, exceeded anything I have 

! ever seen. Whether we wish to save them as 
hay for cows, horses or mules, or to turn stock 
upon them, as upon cow peas, or to improve the 
land by their decay, they are, in my opinion, far 
better than any common pea. To instance only 

\ one thing : I planted them along side of the red 
cow pea ; a dry spell in August arrested the 
farther product of the common pea, the vines 
were leafless and dead : whilst the Rocky Moun- 

! tain pea was green and flourishing, and bearing 
peas in an increased proportion, until the severe 
while frost the last day in October. They grow 
more like a cotton plant ; do not entwine about 
the corn, and consequently may be saved with 
ease for hay. They should be planted by the 
first of May, in good land, and not more than 

ifour in a hill; plant them as you would the 
common pea. They come up quickly, grow 

I rapidly, and commence bearing as soon as the 
common kind. L. Pierce." 



COMPOUND HARROWS. 





The harrow, when properly used, is a most 
valuable implement, and amongst the many va- 
rieties Mr. Pedder, the former distinguished 
Editor of the Farmers' Cabinet, gives us the 
following account of the one represented in the 
cut : 

" These harrows are in general use in some 
of the agricultural districts in England, where 
they are highly approved. They are simple in 
their construction, and very durable. The usual 
size of each is three feet square ; thus the three 



harrows cover a five turn ridge at wheat sowing, 
the horses passing along the open furrow on 
each side, by which the treading of the seeded 
land is prevented. The joints of the harrows 
permit them to operate on a concave,- convex, or 
plain surface, with equal correctness, making 
better work than is possible with those of a dif- 
ferent construction. If at any time an extra 
weight should be thought desirable, a piece of 
wood the length of the width of the harrows 
might be made fast across them by which their 
efficacy would be much increased. By un- 
screwing the nuts, a pair, or one, or three single 



118 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



harrows, can be obtained in an instant. They 
are excellent for harrowing in all kinds of grain 
on land that is cleared, expediting the work, 
and performing much better than any other at 
present in use." 



AN OFFER. 

For every four new subscribers that any friend 
will send us, we will furnish him a copy of the 
first, third, or fourth volume of the Planter, and 
for every ten subscribers, we will furnish all 
three of these volumes. 

The edition of our back numbers of the cur- 
rent volume is completely exhausted; subsequent 
subscribers will, therefore, be furnished for one 
dollar with all the numbers from the time of 
subscription up to July, 1846. 



For the Southern Planter. 
MANURES. 

Mr. Editor, — You published in the January 
number of the Planter an article signed Coates- 
wood, headed, " manures do not sink," and you 
give your approbation to it, by recommending it 
to your readers. This is an important practical 
question, and I hoped to have seen before this 
time, the false reasoning of the article exposed, 
and the wrong conclusion set aside by some one 
more capable than myself of doing justice to 
the subject ; as this has not been done, I will 
even attempt it myself. 

The writer asserts that t{ manure does not 
sink," and to prove it, adduces as a conclusive 
argument, the fact, that if liquid manure be 
filtered through sand, the impurities will be de- 
tained and the water, will pass off nearly pure. 
It is true that the coloring matter — the floating 
particles of undecomposed and insoluble vegeta- 
ble and animal matter will be retained in the 
sand ; but it is no less true, and it is the gist of 
the matter that all, or nearly all of the valuable 
constituents of the manure pass through dis- 
solved in the water. Chemists and apothecaries 
know this ! 

In further support of his argument that the 
soil acts as a filterer preventing the manure from 
sinking, he refers to the process of clarifying 
cider and other liquors, and also to the fact, that 
our springs are kept pure by reason of this fil- 
tration. Now as regards the clarifying of liquors 
nothing is retained but the insoluble vegetable 
matter, the salts and acids. The constituents 
which give a character to the liquor, pass off 
with it, and the same thing happens with the 
rain that falls on the surface of earth — every 
drop that returns to our wells or springs, returns 
charged with more or less saline or mineral 
matter, unless deprived of it, in its wanderings, 
by some chemical force, and in truth there is no 



such thing as pure well or spring wather. They 
are all impregnated with saline or mineral mat- 
ter, some slightly, others perceptibly. But much 
the largest part of the rain that falls on our cul- 
tivated fields, neither runs off, nor passes into the 
earth to any considerable depth, but being im- 
bibed by the soil itself, it holds in solution every 
soluble substance fit for the food of plants, (and 
no others are in a fit condition,) and presents 
them thus prepared to the roots of the growing 
crop. 

The only other remaining proof that is offered 
to support the assertion that manure does not 
sink, but that it all escapes by evaporation, is 
an experiment which the writer says establishes 
his proposition beyond cavil, viz: That if ma- 
nure be enclosed in a box open only at top, it 
will in a very short time become entirely inert. 
There is such a thing as a false experience, the 
result of inaccurate observation. 

I will venture to say, that no one else who 
encloses manure in a tight box open only at top, 
will find it in a very short time become entirely 
inert but that even after a very long time, it will 
contain many of the most active elements of 
nutrition, and for the simple reason, that many 
of the constituents of the manure, most impor- 
tant to vegetation are not volatile, and these 
uniting with the products of the rotting manure 
which are volatile, form with them soluble and 
fixed salts. We shall see hereafter that the at- 
mosphere itself, instead of bearing aloft all these 
nutritious compounds, is made by its presence, 
actually to minister to their formation and by 
the strong power of chemical attraction its con- 
stituents are separated and forced into new and 
very different combinations. Now if the box 
be open at bottom as well as at top, these solu- 
ble compounds will be carried downwards by 
their specific gravity, and by the action of the 
rains and dews, and will impregnate and enrich 
the soil. This last experiment my neighbors 
and myself try every year, on a large scale, in 
the shape of cow pens and there is no more cer- 
tain or effectual way of enriching land, and if 
the pen remains unploughed for a twelvemonth, 
the improvement is only the more apparent. 

It is stated further, that " every body has seen 
the rapid deterioration of land, exposed to the 
sun, without the benefit of trees, or a crop to 
shade it." In other words, that the sun will 
kill the ground. This is altogether a new idea 
to me ! I had been led to believe, from the prac- 
tice of those nations most advanced in the art 
and science of agriculture, as well as from the 
experience of our own most judicious farmers, 
that no such result has followed the oft repeated 
summer fallows of the one, nor the early fallows 
of the other ; on the contrary good reasons might 
be given to show why an actual increase of fer- 
tility should attend the exposure of soils to at- 
mospheric influences. The idea of shading the 



THE SOUTHERN PLANTER. 



119 



ground with a crop, unless the crop be returned 
to the land, is a mode of improvement I do not 
understand. 

This writer goes on to show that manure dis- 
appears much sooner in sand than in clay ; and 
this altogether by evaporation, which he attri- 
butes to its superior heat; overlooking the fact, 
that the sand acts the part of a filter, suffering 
every thing soluble to pass through ; and it is 
only in a state of solution that an}' substance 
can be appropriated as food by the roots of plants. 
As the writer sets out with the assertion, that 
manure does not sink, so he comes to the con- 
clusion that it should be buried deep, and the 
lowest depths should be given to it in sand ; a 
position from which I can testify from my own 
experience, it will never rise, but its course will 
be still — downward. It is my opinion, and I 
am confirmed in it by the experence of many of 
our best practical farmers, that manure, instead j 
of being buried deep, should be kept near the 1 
surface, certainly, in no other way, are its bene- 
ficial effects rendered more apparent than when 
it is applied as a top dressing to wheat, to oats, I 
to grass, to tobacco plants, even to the growing j 
crops of corn and tobacco. I have tried it on 
all these crops, and uniformly with great benefit. 
I have top dressed equal lots of wheat, in each 
month, from October until April, at the rate of 
ten cart loads (ox cart) to the acre, and on each 
lot the produce was more than double that of 
the adjoining land without manure ; and where ! 
it was applied at the time of sowing, it was 
more than quadrupled. This method of apply- ' 
ing manure is very highly esteemed by our most ' 
judicious farmers. Mr. Richard Samson, of 
Goochland, has been practicing on this system . 
for many years. 

How are these crops fed by the manure?, 
How is the after crop of grass nourished 1 How | 
is the soil to a high degree ameliorated 1 and 
this too by a light dressing of manure ; if it all 
evaporates ; if manure does not sink. 

I alluded above to the effect of cow penning 
in fertilizing land, I have a word or two more 
to say on that subject. If fifty head of grown 
cattle be penned every night during one of our 
hottest summer months, (even without litter,) 
they will manure one acre, if the land is not 
very poor, and if it be ploughed the next fall, 
and at the proper time be well prepared and 
tilled, it will produce a good crop of tobacco, 
corn, or any other crop, the season suiting. — 
How is the crop of tobacco fed 1 How is the ' 
soil made rich ? if the manure all evaporates ! 
if manure does not sink ! Here all the manure 
is applied to the surface of the ground, not bu- 
ried deep, it is exposed to the intense heat of our 
summer sun, it may be from June until Novem- 
ber, and yet no man will pretend to deny the 



decided benefit derived 
sheep upon land. 



from penning cattle or 



Again, the streams that pass through large 
cities, saturated as they are with the offal of 
the town, are eagerly sought by the farmers be- 
low, and turned to purposes of irrigation. Their 
effect on vegetation is very striking, owing to 
the large amount of fertilizing matter carried 
down in their current, and deposited on the fields 
they are made to spread over. But how is this 
matter to benefit the meadows ? How are the 
crops to get at this food spread upon the surface % 
if all the manure evaporates ! If manure does 
not sink 1 

In France, Germany, and some parts of Great 
Britain, an extensive use is made of liquid ma- 
nures, much the most valuable portion of the 
manure, by-the-by, and much the most volatile, 
1 yet they are invariably used on the surface as 
a top dressing. Now I ask, how do the plants 
| appropriate these highly nutritious compounds 
to their use, if they all evaporate ; if manure 
does not sink ? 

The Chinese, who carefully collect every sub- 
stance that can be made to minister to the 
growth of plants, apply them not deep, but to 
the growing plant, and the fertility of their soil, 
and the millions fed by its products, do not prove 
that manure all evaporats ! that it does not sink ! 

The nitre beds of France, which are nothing 
more than compost heaps, being earth, vegeta- 
ble and animal matter mixed and thrown into 
long ridges, which are occasionally turned, that 
the materials may be the better exposed to the 
air, after standing a twelvemonth, ammonia and 
nitric acid are both produced in much larger 
quantities than the materials themselves could 
furnish, and clearly by the atmosphere itself. — 
On examination, the heaps are found to contain 
the most valuable manures. Now how can this 
be, if manures all evaporate ? 

Although no chemist, but a plain farmer, I 
have learned enough to appreciate its value as 
applied to agriculture. It teaches me that agents 
engaged in preparing and presenting the raw 
manure, in a fit shape, as food for plants, are 
numerous, and always at work. It teaches me 
that it is the property of all saline and mineral 
substances to hasten the decay of vegetable and 
animal matter. The potash, lime, soda, magne- 
sia, &c. &c , which are present in the soil and 
in the manure, by holding themselves in readi- 
ness to unite with the various acids as they are 
formed, actually provoke their formation, and 
this the more speedily and perfectly, the more 
exposed, as in the nitre beds, the different agents 
are to the sun's light, to the warm air and to 
moisture. The result is, that the manure gra- 
dually disappears, the acids, as we have seen, 
uniting with the alkaline matter to form salts, 
some of them unite with and fix the ammonia; 
(Liebig says, that if plaster be added it will be 
all deprived of its volatility,) and these salts, by 
their specific gravity, and by their solubility, 



120 



THE SOUTHE 



gradually descend and present themselves to the 
roots of plants. Not only is the greater part of 
the manure, as we have before staled, preserved 
and prepared in this way, but the atmosphere 
itself is made to give up its constituents, its oxy- 
gen to form acids, its nitrogen to swell the bulk 
of ammonia, or to form nitric acid. 

If my arguments are sound, and I believe 
them to be so, am I not justified in asserting 
that manures do sink; that manure does not all 
evaporate; that manure should not be buried 
deep; that it should be kept near the surface? 

The parable of the talents seems an apt illus- 
tration — he who buries his talent deep, particu- 
larly in a sand bank, will lose the use of his 
capital, while he who pursues an opposite course 
will get it back with usury. 

W. G. Carr. 

April 10, 1845. 

We are obliged to Mr. Carr for his ex- 
cellent comments upon the article of Coates- 
wood. We did not mean to endorse all the po- 
sitions of the latter, but simply to recommend 
the article to public consideration. For our own 
part, we suspect the truth Vies between the two 
disputants. The fertilizing properties of ma- 
nures are both soluble and gaseous, both liable 
to sink and evaporate, and we would neither 
spread them upon the surface, nor bury them 
very deep. 

We believe that land is greatly injured by 
exposure to atmospheric influences: it is true 
that the benefit to be derived from the shading 
of a crop, may be counteracted by the exhaus- 
tion of the roots where the crop is not turned in, 
but we are sure that a mere covering of wheat 
straw which will protect the gaseous properties 
of the soil from evaporation, will be equal to a 
coating of manure. 



SEEDS. 

We omitted to acknowledge our obligations 
to Mr. Ellsworth for a spring supply of seeds, 
and were only reminded of our negligence by a 
renewal of the favor. 



APPLE BREAD. 

A Frenchman has invented and practiced, 
with great success, a method of making bread 
with common apples, very far superior to potato 
bread. 

After having boiled one-third of peeled apples, 
he bruised them quite warm into two-thirds of 
flour, including the proper quantity of yeast, and 
kneaded the whole without water, the fruit being 
quite sufficient. When the mixture had ac- 



quired the consistency of paste, he put it into a 
vessel in which he allowed it to raise for twelve 
hours. By this process he obtained very excel- 
lent bread, full of eyes, and extremely palatable 
and light. — Exchange paper. 



I saw a mode of roasting potatoes, a few 
days since, that was new to me. I do not know 
but it is practiced by every lady when I am not 
present to see it. Take an old cracked iron 
kettle, hang it over the fire, put in coals, then 
the potatoes, and then more ashes and coals, 
and you will soon have them well roasted by 
the heat above and below. Any body could do 
it, if they only could think of it. — Maine Farmer. 



CORN PLANTER. 
We have received from Mr. Holladay, of 
Spottsylvania, (too late for notice in the last 
number,) an implement for planting corn and 
depositing plaster, guano, or ether dry fertilizers 
at the same time. Fie wishes its merits, in 
which he seems to have great confidence, tested 
by some experienced farmer. It is at our office 
for public inspection. 



CONTENTS OF NO. V. 

Tuckahoe— Character and history of the plant, p. 97. 

Cement — Fire and water proof, p. 98. 

Overseers — Proposition to change the time of con- 
tracting with overseers, p. 98. 

Marl— Calculation of the cost and benefit of marl- 
ing, p. 99. 

Soap — Directions for making, p. 100. 

Horse Power and Threshing Machines — Dr. Bryant's 
opinion of the one manufactured by C. T. Bolts, 
p. 100. 

Berkshire Hog— Low's account of, p. 101. 

Agricultural School— About to be established in Buck- 
ingham, p. 102. 

Agricultural Society— Mr. Hicks' idea of the princi- 
ples upon which it should be organized, p. 104. 

Economy— Its relation to agricultural improvement, 
p. 105. 

Lime — Its effects upon manure heaps, p. 407. 

Ward's IVhite Wheat — An account of, from Mr. Ward 
himself, p. 108. 

Budding and Grafting — Directions for, p. 109. 

Durhams— Extensive sale of, p. 110. 

Agricultural Papers — Value of, p. 110. 

Posts— How to set them, p. 111. 

Guano — Report from the New York Agricultural As- 
sociation, p. 111. 

Bees — To preserve from moth, p. 113. 

Chinches — To prevent, p. 113. 

Cockle — How to get rid of, p. 113. 

Weather— Its effect upon the crops, p. 114. 

Scotch Plough— Manufactured by Mr. Currie, p. 115, 

Manure— Should be kept covered, p. 1 15. 

New Books — Noticed, p. 115. 

Miles— Different measurements in different countries, 
p. 116. 

Reaping Machines — A new one, p. 116. 
Bommer — Come back again, p. 116. 
Peas — New varieties, p. 117. 
Harrows — Compound form of, p. 117. 
Manures— Do they sinkl p. 118. 



SANDS'S SARSAPARILLA, 

fOR THE REMOVAL AND PERMANENT CURE OF ALL DISEASES ARISING FROM AN IMPURE STATE OF THE BLOOD, 

OR HABIT OF THE SYSTEM. 

C • * 

THIS medicine is constantly performing almost in- self undor lasting obligations to you. I can say 

credible cures of diseases arising from impurities many tilings I cannot write, and I do most respect- 

of the blood and general syffcern. It has arrested and fully invite ladies afflicted as I have been, to call 

cured numerous cases of scrofulous affections, dis- upon" me and I will satisfy them fully of the tnj%as 

eases of the skin, rheumatic gout, diseased liver, stated above, and many oiher things in reference to 

painful enlargement of the knee, elbow aud wrist the case. 

joints, chronic rheumatism, sore throat, chronic con- I NANCY J. MILLER, 218 Sullivan st. 

stitutional disorders, and various other disorders rAi * %\ • i e j. 

arising from impure secretions. In this preparation 1 ™ e following let er-from one of the most eminent 

are strongly concentrated all the valuable medicinal Physicians in the ci v of Baltimore, is presented with 

properties of Sarsaparilla, on which its activity de- a l iew . of f owing the opinions of Physicians gene- 

pends, compounded with other remedial agents, se- ra " y m / elaUon , 10 f thls valuable medicine,-many 

* ■ - r - & ' - others of a similar tenor have been received from 



lected from the vegetable kingdom, the whole strength, 
of which is extracted on an entirely new principle, 
which has cost many years of labor and much ex- 
pense. The great object desired is now triumphantly 
accomplished, in the production of a remedy pos- 
sessing a controlling power over supposed incurable 
diseases, heretofore unknown in the history of medi- 
cine 



several of the most distinguished physicians through- 
out our countr 

Baltimore, f'eb. 4th, 1843. 
A. B. & D. Sands.— Gentlemen : — I have used your 
Extract of Sarsaparilla since its introduction into 
this city. It gives me pleasure to state, I have found 
it to answer my most sanguine expectations. I be- 



The testimony of those who have been cured by ' JlT il t0 be the best preparation of that valuable ar- 

. . . S . . , . J tip o nmr in ikp With mnnh rocnopt imui-c 



its use, With their residence, has been published from 
time to time, and were it desirable a mass of the most 
overwhelming testimony could be brought forward, 
proving most conclusively its inestimable value, as 
an active, and curative medicine in the above dis- 
eases. The afflicted, or those who may have given 
up in despair, and all who are interested, are invited 
to make a trial of this valuable medicine, or to call 
on those who have come forward and borne public 
•testimony of its priceless value to them, and satisfy 



tide now in use. With much respect, yours, 

JOHN WHITRIDGE, M. D., 46 Gay Street. 

For further particulars and conclusive evidence of 
its superior value and efficacy, see pamplets, which 
may be obtained of agents gratie. 
Prepared and sold Wholesale and Retail by 
A. B. & D. SANDS, Druggists and Cfeemists, 
79 Fulton st. New York. 
Authorized agents for the Proprietors, in Rich- 
mond A. Duval & Co., in Petersburg Rosser and An- 



themselves individually of its power in arresting and de in Norfolk m' A> Sant f n L7nchburg D . 



curing disease, and of what it has performed for 
others. 

The following interesting case is presented, and 
and the reader invited to its careful perusal. Com- 
ment on such evidence is unnecessary. 



New York, July, 25, 1844 

Messrs. Sands: — Gents- 
justice to you to state the following facts in reference 
to the great benefit I have received in the cure of an 
obstinate Cancerous Ulcer on my breast. 

I was attended eighteen months by a regular and 
skilful physician, assisted by the advice and counsel 
of one of our most able and experienced surgeons, 
without the least benefit whatever. All the various 
methods of treating cancer were resorted to; for five 
weeks in succession my breast was burned with 
caustic three times a day, and for six it was daily 
syringed with a weak solution of nitric acid, and the 
cavity or internal ulcer was so large that it held over 
an ounce of the solution. The Doctor probed the 
ulcer and examined the bone, and said the disease 
was advancing rapidly to the lungs, and if I did not 
get speedy relief by medicine or an operation, the re- 
sult would be fatal. I was advised to have the breast 
laid open and the bones examined, but finding no re- 
lief from what had been done, and feeling I was ra- 
pidly getting Worse, I almost despaired of recovery, 
considered my case nearly hopeless. 

Seeing various testimonials and certificates of cure 
by the use of "Sands' Sarsaparilla," in cases simi- 
lar to my own, I concluded to try a few bottles, seve- 
ral of which were used, but from the long, deep 
seated character of my disease, produced no very de- 
cided change; considering this as the only probable 
cure for my case, I "persevered, until the disease was 
entirely cured. It is now over eleven months since 
the cure was completed; there is not the slightest ap- 
pearance of a return, and I therefore pronounce ■imjsrtf 
well, and the cure entirely effected by "Sands' Sarsa- 
parilla," as / took no other medicine of any kind during 
the time I was using it, nor have I taken any since. 
Please excuse this long deferred acknowledgment, 
whieh I think it my duty to make. Your valuable 
Sarsaparilla cured me, with the blessing of Divine 
Providence, when nothing else could, and I feel my- 



R. Lyman, in Fredericksburg*JamesCook,in Raleigh, 
N. Q., Williams & Haywood. • 
Sold also by Druggists generally throughout the 
United States. Price #1 per bottle— six bottles for $5. 

fr^The public are respectfully requested to re- 
member that it is Sands's Sarsaparilla, that has and 
I consider it but an act of is constantly achieving such remarkable cures of the 
most difficult class of diseases to which the human 
frame is subject, and ask for Sands' Sarsaparilla 
and take no other. my 1 6t 

v 



REAPING MACHINES. 

THE subscriber, as the authorized agert of Cyrus 
McCormick, is prepared to receive orders for his 
celebrated Reaping Machine, for the next harvest. — 
The character and value of this implement ^.re so 
well established, that it is unnecessary to say any 
thing more in its favor. Many gentlemen were dis- 
appointed in getting the Machine last year in conse- 
quence of delaying their orders too long. The de- 
mand for them is increasing so rapidly, that it will 
be impossible to fill any but the earlier orders that 
will be given.* Apply immediately to 

C. T. BOTTS. 



JAMES RIVER LAND. 

THE subscriber is authorized to sell, upon very 
accommodating terms, a valuable plantation of 
474 acres on James River, within two miles of 
Goochland Court House. C. T. BOTTS. , 



CHEAP FARM FOR SALE. . 

THE subscriber is authorized to sell a valuable, 
highly improved, and healthy estate in the county 
of Greensville, for $2 25 an acre. It contains about 
1100 acres, and is probably the cheapest tract of land 3 " - ** 
ever offered to the public. C. T. BOTTS. 



J. W. RANDOLPH & CO. 

book-seluers, book-binders, stationers. 
And dealers in 
Music, Musical Instruments and Fancy Goods, 
No. 121, Main St., Richmond, Va\ • * 

Orders from the country will be supplied at mode-r 
rate prices and with despatch. 



THOMAS & CHARLES ELLIS, 

IMPORTERS OF DRY GOODS, HARDWARE, CUTLERY- AND' .GUNS, 
E Street, Opposite the Exchange Bank. 

RICHARD HILL, Jr. . ' 

GENERAL AGENT AND COLLECTOR, 

OFFICE No. 183, MAIN STREET, CORNER BELOW THE BANKS. 



HORSE POWER AND THRESHING, MACHINE, 

THE Subsc^ber is manufacturing, for $120, what he believes to be the best Horse Power and Thresh- 
ing Machine now in use. He is emboldened to say so, from the fact, that where it was used last 
year it was universally* approved. The Horse Power, particularly, is unrivalled. From two to four 
horses is all the power that is ever required, and for compactness, ease of draft and durability, it cannot 
be excelled. 

This Machine is calculated to get out cleanly from 120 to 150 bushels per day; but fi?r $150 a larger 
drum will be furnished, that with lour horses will thresh 250 bushels. 

Orders are pouring in, and those desiring these Maehines'will please inform me at once, thafT .may 
not be hurried in getting them up; and therefore may have a better opportunity df turning out a good ar- 
ticle. • : • ' 

|^»See - Mr. Roane's opinion of this Machine as expressed in the March No. of the Southern Planter, 
at p. 65, aW Dr. Bryant's -in the May No. at p. 100. 

N. B. — In consequence of the late extraordinary rise* in the price of iron, the subscriber has been 
compelled* to raise the price«of these Machines to $130 ' -C.'T. BOTTS. 

April 28, 1845. 

, Bomme^s Method at Reduced Prices. 

TTIHE cheapness and expedition with which-manure may be manufactured by the Bommer process, and, 
• JL .the fact that it can be produced to any extent desired, not only from all-vegetable matter,, whether 
green or dry, but also from the earth itself. It is evidenUthat no economical cultivator of tile soil can 
' consistently remain destitute ©f this valuable me*ans of restoring fertility to exhauStedvlands; of making 
good land better, and of augmenting crops of all descriptions. • w l , o facilitate the -speedy and general in- 
troduction of 'this important improvement, it is hereafter to be fold to e'ach individual at the low price of 
five dollars, with the right to use it on his own premises, lb any extent desired,. As soon. as practicable, 
it is intended to employ a competent Travelling .Agent in each County, whose' duty it shall be, not only 
to promote sales, but also to furnish all necessary illustrations of its practical utility. *•-'. * 

Persons Who may \psh to avail themselves of this method immediately, are hire by informed, that by 
forwarding their address to the subscriber, with five dollars enclosed, that they shall instantly have the 
rn.eth<&l forwarded to them without charge of postage. Any intelligent and responsible person wh# would 
wish.to be employed as Travelling Agent in any county in the States of Virginia or Delaware, will please 
address*me on the subject, with suitable testimonials of character jand qualification\.all of which must 
be post paid. Suitable persons will find the employment both useful and lucrative. 

; ' # ELI BARNETT, General- Agent. 

Westville, New Haven Co., Connecticut, April 1, 1845. . • • ■.•*. 



Hussey's Reapiiig Machine. 

FARMERS who intend procuring this machine to cut their next harvest, will please send their orders 
soon to* the.subscriber in Baltimore. The uncertainty felt by farmers for a year or two past, as to 
what machine they had better procure, appears from present indications, to be considerably removed, as 
the orders already received are more than double the number of any previous year, up to the middle of 
February. To say nothing of what this machine will do in good standing grain, it is warranted to cut- 
grain in such bad condition, 'as no other reaping machine ever made can cut at all. , 

Baltimore, fFek/uaty 18, 1845. # , ' OBED HUSSEY. . 

• PERUVIAN GUANO. 

njlHE*subscribe^s are prepared to furnish to order,, Guano of the catgo imported by Saml. K. George, 
1 Esq. Agent of the Peruvian Guano Company, and warranted genuine, at three cents per lb. for one 
or rrlore bags, less than a ton in weight, pr$2 50 per 100 lbs. for one or more tons. 

This cargo is warranted to be pure and of the best quality, and is in the. original bags (of about 130 
lbs. each.) All orders,, to insure attention, must be accompanied with the cash. 
Richmond, Feb. 5, 1845. • DUNLOP, , MONCtFRE & CO. 



Wood Engraving, 

GOOD Engravefc is much wanted in the City of Richmond. In a population of 25,000,' there is no 
ene Vho» makes .a business of engraving. .